Dyssatysfakcja w przestrzeni turystycznej. Negatywne opinie użytkowników TripAdvisor na temat głównych atrakcji turystycznych wybranych miast w Polsce
Treść / Zawartość
The dissatisfaction in space tourism. Negative feedback of the TripAdvisor users on the main tourist attractions of selected cities in Poland
Research related to tourist dissatisfaction, according to the concept of Service Recovery Paradox (SRP), by recognizing the extent and causes of negative user reviews of the tourist offer, allow for the verification of the characteristics of this offer, which may in turn contribute to the conversion of the “critics” into the “supporters”. The aim of this study was to identify the extent and causes of dissatisfaction with the major tourist attractions of selected cities in Poland, including Krakow, Warsaw, Gdansk, Wroclaw and Poznan. The databank of quantitative data were opinions generated by users of the TripAdvisor tourist community service (total 106 211 ratings, 26.10-1.11.2016). Users of this site rated the attractions in a 5-point scale from “excellent” to “terrible”. The method of multidimensional comparative analysis was used for quantitative data analysis (Bellinger 1994; Zajadacz 2004). In order to clarify the causes of dissatisfaction with tourist attractions, qualitative data was also used as supplementary – selected entries on TripAdvisor in Polish and English. Analysis of quantitative data showed that, regarding main tourist attractions, positive rating ranging from very good to excellent (fig. 1-5) predominated in all surveyed cities. However, also in all the cities analyzed, in relation to the main attractions, there were also negative ratings at “poor” and “terrible” levels. However, the degree of dissatisfaction with tourist attractions can be considered small, because negative ratings (“poor”, “terrible”) were from 1,1% (Gdansk) to 1,9% (Krakow) of the total rating. Most of this type of negative opinions concerned Krakow's tourist attractions, and least Poznan’s (fig. 6-10). The results of the quantitative data analysis (negative ratings) taking into account the 11 languages used in evaluation, at the adopted 5-point scale, showed that the most “poor” and “terrible” levels in all cities were generated in English and Polish (tab. 2). The ranking of cities according to negative ratings of major tourist attractions in the scale of 0-100 points (tab. 3), showed that in the category of “poor” rating, the first place was taken by Krakow (54.0 points), followed by Warsaw (53.6 points), Wroclaw (23.3 points), Poznan 14.7 points) and Gdansk (13.2 points). Whereas in the category of “terrible”', the first place was also taken by Krakow (58.3 points), followed by Warsaw (46.4 points), Wroclaw (36.3 points), Gdansk (27.5 points) and Poznan (11.1 points). Based on the results of qualitative research, including analyzes of selected entries in English and Polish, it was found that the main reasons for dissatisfaction with tourist attractions were: low quality of services compared to its price, problems with operation of booking system and tourist information (lack of reliable, up-to-date information, readable for foreigners) lack of aesthetics (neglected, destroyed places), high expectations of tourists (causing disappointment during contact with reality), or unpleasant events that occurred during the journey to the attractions. The results of the research based on quantitative and qualitative data generated in the TripAdvisor service may provide the basis for discussion on contemporary tourist attractions, considered to be leading in the analyzed cities. Cognitive aspects of work, as well as methodological ones, provide useful knowledge in the decision-making process regarding marketing of both the places and cities.