INTRODUCTION: A growing number of human studies suggest that regular physical activity can improve not only physical but also mental health. Most interventions are based on continuous-aerobic-mild to moderate intensity exercise, which requires people to make a sufficient time commitment and are often indicated as less enjoyable and boring, which is a known limiting factor. Given the markedly lower training volume, interval training is a time-efficient strategy that induces rapid muscle and cardio‑respiratory adaptations. Therefore, the interval exercise protocol was successfully applied in many health-oriented programs focusing on the prevention of metabolic and cardio‑respiratory diseases. However, studies evaluating the effects of interval exercise on brain functions are limited. AIM(S): The aim of this study was to investigate whether aerobic and resistance interval exercises affect the peripheral concentration of selected neuroprotective proteins (BDNF, IGF‑1, VEGF), as well as, modulate human cognition. METHOD(S): The study involved Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport students. The main experiment consisted of three trial sessions, control (CON), aerobic high-intensity interval exercise (AHIE), and resistance high-intensity interval exercise (RHIE), separated by at least one week. Before and after interval exercises, a growth factor (BDNF, IGF‑1, VEGF) assay was applied using the ELISA method. An auditory verbal paired‑associate learning task was used to assess memory. RESULTS: Both interval exercise protocols modulate peripheral concentration of selected neuroprotective proteins. Obtained results of cognitive functions indicated that acute interval exercise significantly improved memory in young adults. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the proposed interval exercise can induce beneficial changes in human cognition through an increase in peripheral neuroprotective protein concentrations.