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Tytuł artykułu

Immune dysfunction and neuroinflammation in autism spectrum disorder

Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex pathogenesis. Many studies over the last four decades have recognized altered immune responses among individuals diagnosed with ASD. The purpose of this critical and comprehensive review is to examine the hypothesis that immune dysfunction is frequently present in those with ASD. It was found that often individuals diagnosed with ASD have alterations in immune cells such as T cells, B cells, monocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. Also, many individuals diagnosed with ASD have alterations in immunoglobulins and increased autoantibodies. Finally, a significant portion of individuals diagnosed with ASD have elevated peripheral cytokines and chemokines and associated neuroinflammation. In conclusion, immune dysregulation and inflammation are important components in the diagnosis and treatment of ASD.

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Opis fizyczny



  • Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, Mo i Rana, Norway
  • Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
  • Department of Neurological and Movement Science, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
  • Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, MD, USA
  • Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, MD, USA
  • Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, MD, USA,
  • Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanograficas, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion, Chile


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