Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2015 | 60 | 3 |
Tytuł artykułu

Quadrupedal dinosaurs did not evolve fully pronated forearms: New evidence from the ulna

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Therians (marsupials and placentals), archosaurs, and chameleons are remarkable in that they evolved postures and gaits with inturned forelimbs. However, recent studies have indirectly recognized that, unlike fully pronated therian and chameleon forearms, dinosaur forearms were mechanically constrained by semi-pronated (misaligned) joints. This has led to the hypothesis that quadrupedal dinosaurs mitigated this constraint via proximal migration of the radius, indirectly forming a more pronated, tubular manus distally. To test this hypothesis, a standardized pose was used to examine the forearm pronation of ornithischian dinosaurs that were obligatory quadrupeds and facultative bipeds. Results show that only restructuring of the distal, not the proximal radius, causes additional pronation of the pre-axial edge of the carpus, but also unexpectedly reveal that the ulna may help form a tubular manus by supinating the post-axial edge. Thus, relative to the plane of the elbow joint the wrist and finger joints remain wholly semi-pronated. These findings do not support the hypothesis that a tubular cross-section evolved in dinosaurs to pronate the manus further to allow the finger joints to participate in locomotion. Instead these results indicate that quadrupedal dinosaurs tended to abandon propulsive use of their wrist and finger joints by converting their carpus + metacarpus into a vertical stilt-like extension of the forearm. Prior studies have overlooked that this divergent path to parasagittal forelimb kinematics had its phylogenetic basis in the retention of the semi-pronated forearm joint alignment that is plesiomorphic to tetrapods. Thus, this test provides the first functional explanation for the convergent responses of quadrupedal archosaurs to their misaligned forearm joints, and provides a foundation for elucidating why the quadrupedal evolution of archosaur forelimbs diverged from those of therians and chameleons.
Słowa kluczowe
Opis fizyczny
  • Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, 1425 West Lincoln Highway, DeKalb, 60115-2825 Illinois, USA
  • Department of Biology, Elgin Community College, 1700 Spartan Drive, Elgin, 60123-7193 Illinois, USA
  • Bonnan, M.F. 2003. The evolution of manus shape in sauropod dinosaurs: Implications for functional morphology, forelimb orientation, and phy-logeny. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23: 595-613.
  • Bonnan, M.F. and Yates, A.M. 2007. A new description of the forelimb of the basal sauropodomorph Melanorosaurus: Implications for the evolution of pronation, manus shape and quadrupedalism in sauropod dinosaurs. Special Papers in Palaeontology 77: 157-168.
  • Boonstra, L.D. 1929. Pareiasaurian Studies. Part III. On the pareiasaurian manus. Annals of the South African Museum 28: 97-112.
  • Boonstra, L.D. 1932. Pareiasaurian Studies. Part VIII. The osteology and myology of the locomotor apparatus. B. Fore Limb. Annals of the South African Museum 28: 437-503.
  • Carpenter, K. and Wilson, Y. 2008. A new species of Camptosaurus (Orni-thopoda: Dinosauria) from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Dinosaur National Monument, Utah, and a biomechanical analysis of its forelimb. Annals of Carnegie Museum 76: 227-263.
  • Carpenter, K., Madsen, J.H., and Lewis, A. 1994. Mounting of fossil vertebrate skeletons. In: P. Leiggi and P. May (eds.), Vertebrate Paleon-tological Techniques. Vol. 1, 285-322. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Currie, P.J., Badamgarav, D., Koppelhus, E.B., Sissons, R., and Vickaryous,M.K. 2011. Hands, feet, and behavior in Pinacosaurus (Dinosauria: An-kylosauridae). ActaPalaeontologicaPolonica 56: 489-504.
  • Dilkes, D.W. 1993. Growth and locomotion in the hadrosaurian dinosaur Maiasaura peeblesorum from the Upper Cretaceous of Montana. 425 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto, Toronto.
  • Dilkes, D.W. 2001. An ontogenetic perspective on locomotion in the Late Cretaceous dinosaur Maiasaura peeblesorum (Ornithischia: Hadro-sauridae). Canadian Journal of Earth Science 38: 1205-1227.
  • Ecker, A. and Wiedersheim, R.E.E. 1896. Anatomie des Frosches. Erste Abtheilung. Lehre vom Skelet und vom Muskelsystem. 3rd ed. 227 pp. Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.
  • Forster, C.A. 1990. The postcranial skeleton of the ornithopod dinosaur Tenontosaurus tilletti. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 10: 273-294.
  • Fowler, D.W. and Hall, L.E. 2010. Scratch-digging sauropods, revisited. Historical Biology 23: 27-40.
  • Fujiwara, S.-I. 2009. A reevaluation of the manus structure in Triceratops (Ceratopsia: Ceratopsidae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29: 1136-1147.
  • Galton, P.M. 1974. The ornithischian dinosaur Hypsilophodon from the Wealden of the Isle of Wight. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Geology) 25: 1-152.
  • Galton, P.M. 1981. Dryosaurus, a hypsilophodontid dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of North America and Africa: Postcranial skeleton. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 55: 271-312.
  • Garstka, W.R. and Burnham, D.A. 1997. Posture and stance of Triceratops: Evidence of digitigrade manus and cantilever vertebral column. In: D.L. Wolberg, E. Stump, and G. Rosenberg (eds.), Dinofest International: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at Arizona State University, 385-391. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.
  • Gasc, J.-P. 1963. Adaptation á la marche arboricole chez le caméléon. Archives d'Anatomie, d'Histologie, et d'Embryologie 46: 81-115.
  • Gauthier, J.A. 1986. Saurischian monophyly and the origin of birds. In: K. Padian (ed.), The Origin of Birds and the Evolution of Flight. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 8: 1-55.
  • Gilmore, C.W. 1924. A new species of hadrosaurian dinosaur from the Edmonton Formation (Cretaceous) of Alberta. Canada Department of Mines. Geological Survey. Geology Series, No. 43 38 (2010): 13-28.
  • Hennig, E. 1925. Kentrurosaurus aethiopicus: Die Stegosaurier-Funde vom Tendaguru, Deutsch-Ostafrika. Palaeontographica. Erste Reihe, Teil 1. Erste und zweite Lieferung 7 (Supplement): 101-253.
  • Hutson, J.D. 2010. A Functional Study of the Origins of Tetrapod Forelimb Pronation. 330 pp. M.Sc. Thesis, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb. Available from ProQuest UMI:
  • Hutson, J.D. and Hutson, K.N. 2013. Using the American alligator and a repeated-measures design to place constraints on in vivo shoulder joint range of motion in dinosaurs and other fossil archosaurs. The Journal of Experimental Biology 216: 275-284.
  • Hutson, J.D. and Hutson, K.N. 2014. A repeated-measures analysis of the effects of soft tissues on wrist range of motion in the extant phyloge-netic bracket of dinosaurs: Implications for the functional origins of an automatic wrist folding mechanism in Crocodilia. The Anatomical Record 297: 1228-1249.
  • Johnson, R.E. and Ostrom, J.H. 1995. The forelimb of Torosaurus and an analysis of the posture and gait of ceratopsian dinosaurs. In: J.J. Thomason (ed.), Functional Morphology in Vertebrate Paleontology, 205-218. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • Lambe, L.M. 1920. The hadrosaur Edmontosaurus from the Upper Cretaceous of Alberta. Canada Department of Mines, Geological Survey, Memoir 120: 1-79.
  • Mallison, H. 2010. CAD assessment of the posture and range of motion of Kentrosaurus aethiopicus HENNIG 1915. Swiss Journal of Geosciences 103: 211-233.
  • Moodie, R.L. 1910. An armored dinosaur from the Cretaceous of Wyoming. Kansas University Science Bulletin 5: 257-273.
  • Morrey, B.F. and Chao, E.Y.S. 1976. Passive motion of the elbow joint. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 58: 501-508.
  • Parks, W.A. 1920. The osteology of the trachodont dinosaur Kritosaurus in-curvimanus. University of Toronto Studies, Geological Series 11: 1-76.
  • Paul, G.S. 1987. The science and art of restoring the life appearance of dinosaurs and their relatives: A rigorous how-to guide. In: S.J. Czerkas and E.C. Olson (eds.), Dinosaurs Past and Present. Volume 2, 4-49. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • Rasmussen, M.E. 1997. Front limb morphology of Ouranosaurus nige-riensis—with remarks on the evolutionary aspects. Erasmus Research Report 1997: 1-35.
  • Rasmussen, M.E. 1998a. Notes on the morphology and the orientation of the forelimb of Ouranosaurus nigeriensis. Oryctos 1: 127-130.
  • Rasmussen, M.E. 1998b. The Hadrosaurian Forelimb: Morphology, Function and Inferred Phylogeny. 170 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen.
  • Rasmussen, M.E. 1999. Hadrosauride dinosaurers forben; funktionel mor-fologi og systematik. Geologisk Tidsskrift 2: 19-23.
  • Romer, A.S. 1956. Osteology of the Reptiles. 772 pp. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Santa Luca, A.P. 1980. The postcranial skeleton ofHeterodontosaurus tucki (Reptilia, Ornithischia) from the Stormberg of South Africa. Annals of the South African Museum 79: 159-211.
  • Schwarz, W. 1935. Das Handgelenk der Amphibien. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 75: 634-648.
  • Senter, P.J. 2010. Evidence for a sauropod-like metacarpal configuration in stegosaurian dinosaurs. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 55: 427-432.
  • Senter, P.J. 2011. Evidence for a sauropod-like metacarpal configuration in ankylosaurian dinosaurs. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 56: 221-224.
  • Sereno, P.C. 1987. The Ornithischian Dinosaur Psittacosaurusfom the Lower Cretaceous of Asia and the Relationships of the Ceratopsia. 256 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, New York.
  • Steeman, M.E. 2001. The stance of Iguanodon bernissartensis: comments on the forelimb. Gaia 16: 97-100.
  • Thompson, S. and Holmes, R.B. 2007. Forelimb stance and step cycle in Chasmosaurus irvinensis (Dinosauria: Neoceratopsia). Palaeontologia Electronica 10 (1; 5A): 17 pp. Available from: http://palaeo-electronica. org/2007_1/step/index.html.
  • Vialleton, L.-M. 1924. Morphologie generale: membres et ceintures des vertébrés tétrapodes: critique morphologique du transformisme. 710 pp. Librairie Octave Doin, Paris.
  • Weems, R.E. 2006. The manus print of Kayentapus minor: Its bearing on the biomechanics and ichnotaxonomy of early Mesozoic saurischian dinosaurs. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 37: 369-378.
  • Wilson, J.A. and Sereno, P.C. 1998. Early evolution and higher-level phylogeny of sauropod dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Memoir 5 18 (Supplement 2): 1-68.
  • Zapfe, H. 1979. Chalicotheriumgrande (BLAINV.) aus der miozänen Spaltenfüllung von Neudorf an der March (Děvinská Nová Ves), Tschechoslowakei. Neue Denkschriften des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 2: 1-282.
Rekord w opracowaniu
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.