Response of spring wheat to diversified mineral fertilization
Treść / Zawartość
The quantity and quality of spring wheat grain yield is dependent on appropriate cultivation practices, including mineral fertilization. Nutrients can be applied both to soil, on seeds and on leaves. For new cultivars, determination of the optimal doses and timings of fertilization with nitrogen and other mineral elements should be considered as particularly important. A controlled field experiment with the spring wheat cultivar Katoda was carried out in 2013-2015, at the Experimental Station of the University of Rzeszow in south-eastern Poland. The first experimental factor was the fertilization system (soil, seed, foliar or combined seed x foliar system), the second factor was the dose of soil nitrogen applied (80 vs. 120 kg ha-1) and the third factor was the year of cropping (2013, 2014, 2015). The highest grain yield was obtained after the combined application of the seed fertilizer Primus B and foliar Basfoliar 36 Extra. The difference obtained in comparison with the control amounted to 0.87 t ha-1. Increasing the nitrogen dose from 80 to 120 kg ha-1 caused an increase in the SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development) index, the number of spikes prior to harvest, TGW (thousand grain weight) and grain yield by 0.5 t ha-1, respectively. Both the foliar fertilizer and a higher nitrogen dose effected an increase in the total protein content in the grain. The highest fibre content was obtained after the use of the seed fertilizer and in the control seeds, and the highest ash content occurred after the use of the foliar fertilizer. An increase in the content of Mg, Fe and Mn in grain was caused by foliar fertilization, while a higher K content resulted from the application of a higher nitrogen dose.