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2009 | 16 | 1 |
Tytuł artykułu

Greek language, the language of languages: the foundation of global athletic communication

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
16
Numer
1
Opis fizyczny
p.9-17,ref.
Twórcy
autor
  • Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
autor
  • Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Bibliografia
  • [1] Hofman J.B., Etymological Dictionary of Ancient Greek, transl. into Greek by A.D. Papanikolaou, Athens 1989, p. 52: glossa (language).
  • [2] An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Traditional Symbols, transl. into Greek A. Tsoukalas, Athens: Pyrinos Kosmos, 1992, p. 115.
  • [3] Homer, Iliad. Book 4, 438: reference to many languages, and Book 2, 804; see: Hesiod, Works and Days 707(1), Aeschylus, X0.266, Herodotus, 1.57, 9.16, Thucydides, 3.112, see: Hofman, as above, p. 52: yXaaaa (language).
  • [4] V. Hugo-W. Durant: From the book by K. Sinos-A Benardis, Ti Eipan oi Xenoi gia tin Ellada (What the Foreigners Said about Greece), Athens: Nea Thesis, 1998, p. 108.
  • [5] Article by L. Dagre in the bimonthly magazine I Glossa (The Language), ed. Omilos gia ti Diadosi tis Ellinikis Glossas (Association for the Spreading for the Greek Language), 16th year, Piraeus, June- October 2006, No. 135, p. 4.
  • [6] As above.
  • [7] Father Panteleimon Fatsis (K.SP.K), article in the newspaper Proodos, Serres, 1 September 1999, p. 6.
  • [8] Article by M.H., associate of the company Microsoft, in the magazine Nexus, October- November, Athens 2004, pp. 45-47.
  • [9] Pavlakis I., article in I Glossa, as above, 10th year, July-August 2000, Piraeus, No. 100, p. 5.
  • [10] Schilling G., article in I Glossa, as above, 15th year, September-October 2005, No. 130, pp. 1 and 8.
  • [11] I Glossa, as above, 2005, p. 5.
  • [12] Proodos, as above, p. 6.
  • [13] I Glossa, as above, 2005, p. 1.
  • [14] Vourveris K.I., To Agonistiko Pnevma ton Ellinon (The Fighting Spirit of Greeks), Athens: Anthropistiki Etaireia, No. 21, 1964, p. 3.
  • [15] Euripides, The Suppliants, 323; Thucydides. I. 123, 1; see: Vourveris, as above, pp. 4-5.
  • [16] Homer, Iliad, Book 23, 258, Book 24, 1; Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 845; Aristophanes, Extract 572; Herodotus, 6.127; Pindarus, 0.1.11; Aristophanes, Wealth; 583, Sophocles, Electra, 682, 699; Plato, Laws, 658a.
  • [17] Herodotus, 2.91; Euripides, Hecuba, 314; The Trojan Women, 1003; Pindarus, 0.2.94, Plato, Menon 94b; Gorgias 456d; Laws 765c; Republic 618b.
  • [18] Vourveris, as above, pp. 4-5.
  • [19] I Glossa, as above, 2005, p. 1.
  • [20] Cicero, Pro Archia, III XLIV, transl. [Greek is read in nearly all nations, but Latin is restricted to its own quite narrow borders.]; see: M. Pagoulatos, Anthologio Patridognosias, Athens: Georgiadis, 1996, pp. 87-88.
  • [21] Odyssey, Book 9, 164; Greek Inscriptions 969.
  • [22] Pindarus, N.3. 146, N.6.38, 0.7 13.
  • [23] Pindarus, 0.2.9, 0.13.17, N.3.117.
  • [24] Wojciech Lipoński, World Sports Encyclopedia, Atena Publishing House, Poznań 2003, pp. 166, 167, 170, 175, 255, 404 and others.
  • [25] Diotis V.I., Original English Dictionary of Three Thousand Greek Words in the English Language, Athens: Ofelimo Vivlio, 1980, pp. 9-11; the entire first speech is published in English; see: K.I. Tryferoulis, Etymological X-Ray of the names of Greek Presidents, Prime Ministers, MPs and MEPs, 1974-1995, Athens: Epikairotita, 1995, pp. 83-84.
  • [26] Newspaper Estia, article by Theophanis Kyriakidis: The Scientists and the Greek Language, 3 Decem¬ber 2002, Athens: contains the entire speech.
  • [27] Philostratus II, Gymnasticus, § 5.
  • [28] Gardiner E.N., Athletics of the Ancient World, Oxford 1930, pp. 128-143; L. Moretti, Olympionikai. I Vincitori Negli Antichi Agoni Olympici, Roma 1957.
  • [29] Pindarus, O.13; Plato, Laws, 833a; Theogony, 129a.
  • [30] Polydeuces, Onomastikon, 3.146; Newspaper Eleftheros Typos, 21 April 1990, Athens, p. 16.
  • [31] Stefanos Vyzantios Dictionary: stadionikis.
  • [32] Herodotus 2.149, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 7.73; Diodorus Siculus, 1.52.
  • [33] Homer, Iliad, Book 13, 314; Thucydides, 4.38.
  • [34] Simon, 154; Pindarus, O.13.
  • [35] Lipoński W., World Sports Encyclopedia, op. cit.
  • [36] Collection of inscriptions 2758; Pindarus, 0.13.50; Polydeuces, Onomastikon, C.188; for more details, see: W. Lipoński, op. cit.
  • [37] Pausanias V. 8.6: "Hypenus"; see: table of Olympic winners, Migne, Patrologia, Vol. XIX, Eusebius of Pamphilus, Book I, Chapter XXXIII.
  • [38] Philostratus, Gymnasticus, 6.
  • [39] Commentator on Pindarus, 0.10.76.
  • [40] Pindarus, P.10.14; Gardiner E.N., op. cit., pp. 136¬-137.
  • [41] Philostratus, Gymnasticus, 33; see: W. Lipoński, pp. 166-168; Th. Yannakis, Archaeognosia-Philo- sophia Agonistikis (Ancient Knowledge-Sports Philosophy) 1979, pp. 98-99.
  • [42] Collection of inscriptions 245, 1515; see: Plato, Laws, 833b; Pausanias, III.21.1; Migne, Vol. XII; Eusebius of Pamphilus, Book I, Chapter XXXIII, 14th Olympiad; for dolichos, see: N. Papahatzis, Messiniaka-Iliaka, Athens 1965, pp. 244-246 note 4.
  • [43] Philostratus, Gymnasticus §4, text, translation, comments by K. Kitriniaris, Athens 1961, 39 §15; see: P. Kavadias, The Sanctuary of Asclepius, Athens 1900, p. 133, note 1.
  • [44] Plato, Protagoras, 335e; Xenophon, Symposium, 317.
  • [45] Aeschines, 66, 32.
  • [46] Pausanias V.8,7; see: N. Papahatzis, as above, 1965, p. 242, note 4; see: Thucydides 1,6; Roman Archaeology Z. 12.
  • [47] Pausanias 1.44,1; N. Papahatzis, comments in Attika, 1974, pp. 506-508, note 1.
  • [48] Philostratus, Gymnasticus §4; Hesychius: dromokeryx, Souidas: dromokerykes.
  • [49] Philostratus, Gymnasticus §4, K. Kitriniaris, as above, 15; Th. Yiannakis, as above, Athens 1979, p. 100, note 2.
  • [50] Philostratus, Gymnasticus 4.7.32; Plutarch, Aristides, §20; see: Th. Yiannakis, Was the Accomplishment of the Messenger in 490 BC a Myth or a Fact?, SEGAS, Athens 1990, pp. 81-86.
  • [51] Philostratus, Gymnasticus §32; E.N. Gardiner, op. cit., Fig. 92, 93; Th. Yiannakis, The Sporting Technique from Depictions on Clay Vessels, Athens 1978, pp. 29-41; I. Chrysafis, Gymnastics of Ancient Greeks, Athens 1965, 368.
  • [52] Article by Th. Yiannakis in the SEGAS magazine, July-December 1990, Nos. 37-42, A0^va, pp. 81¬-86, with rich original bibliography.
  • [53] Difference between Heavy and Deaf, Philostratus, Gymnasticus, §3, Aristotle, Politics, 8.4.7 and 6.7.3; Plato, Laws, 863c; Euripides, Alcestis, 462; Sophocles, Aias (Ajax), 558; see: Homer, Odyssey, "larger than the rest and thick, no little heavier", 8.186.
  • [54] Pausanias II, 16,3; Apollodorus, 3.60.
  • [55] Perseus..., Pausanias II, 16, 3.
  • [56] See: Istoria to Ellinikou Ethnous (History of the Greek Nation), Vol. A, Ekdotiki Athinon, Athens 1970, pp. 152-153.
  • [57] Pausanias, 5.20,1.
  • [58] Homer, Odyssey, 9.128, 189.
  • [59] Homer, Iliad, 2.773; see: Hesychius: "discus"; Solos: 23.82.6.
  • [60] See: Pausanias, Attika, 35, 3.
  • [61] Gardiner E.N. as above, p. 156.
  • [62] Polydeuces, Onomastikon, C.151.
  • [63] Philostratus, Eikones (Imagines), 24.
  • [64] Thebais, VII 679-712; Th. Yannakis, Archaeognosia-Philosophia Agonistikis, Athens, 1979, pp. 158-164; see: W. Lipoński, as above, pp. 167-168.
  • [65] Philostratus, Gymnasticus, 31.
  • [66] Pindarus 0.13.41, P.8.94, I.1.35, N. 7.12; Arrianus, Epictetus Manual, 3, 1.5; Philostratus, Gymnasticus, 32.
  • [67] Philostratus, Gymnasticus, 3; Apollonius, Argonautica, II, 47.
  • [68] Philostratus, Gymnasticus, 3; Apollonius, Argo- nautica, 1.9, 17, Pausanias, VI 13, 3.
  • [69] Herodotus, 9, 75; Plutarch, 2.738A, Pindarus, N.7.9.
  • [70] Pavlinis E., Istoria Gymnastikis (History of Gymnastics), Didaskaleion, Athens, 1928, 79.
  • [71] Plutarch, Symposium, 9.2, 2; Polydeuces, Onomastikon, C.151; Patriarch Photius, Codex, 247.
  • [72] See: Yiannakis Th., The Sporting Technique from Depictions on Clay Vessels, Athens 1978, p. 166.
  • [73] See: Pausanias V 7.7, Table of Olympic winners, 38th Olympiad.
  • [74] Pausanias, V 9, 1: the winner was Eutelidas.
  • [75] Pausanias, V 14, 10.
  • [76] Aristotle, Rhetoric, A. 5, 11.
  • [77] Philostratus, Gymnasticus, 3; K. Paleologos, History of the Olympic Games, Athinon AE, 1976, p. 133, fig. 54.
  • [78] Pausanias V 26, 2-3.
  • [79] Philostratus, Gymnasticus, 3, 31; see: Aristotle, as above, see: E.N. Gardiner, as above, pp. 177-180.
  • [80] Ibid, p. 366.
  • [81] Pindarus, 0.1.163; Aeschylus, Seven against Thebes, 122.
  • [82] Euripides, Electra, 825.
  • [83] Pausanias, VI 16, 4: its length was two diaulos.
  • [84] Hesychius: ippeios road and ippeia; Sophocles, Electra, 506.
  • [85] Philostratus, Gymnasticus, 32-33.
  • [86] Collections of inscriptions, 2758; Pausanias 1.23, 11.
  • [87] Pindarus, I. 1.32; Polydeuces, Onomastikon, C.150.
  • [88] Polydeuces, Onomastikon, 151; Commentator on Pindarus, P.10.22.
  • [89] Pindarus, N. 8. 47 and I.1.32: "shield."
  • [90] Polydeuces, Onomastikon, C.151; Commentator on Pindarus, P.10.22; Euripides, Electra, 825.
  • [91] Pausanias, V 8.10.
  • [92] Plutarch, Problem, E.1: end of truce; see: more Th. Yiannakis, Archaeognosia-Philosophia Agonistikis, Athens 1973, pp. 105-107.
  • [93] See: Moretti L., as above, table of winner of the 25th Olympiad.
  • [94] Homer, Iliad, 23, 581-585; see: Aristophanes, The Clouds, 83.
  • [95] Pavlinis E., as above, pp. 114; Commentator on Pindarus, 0.2.92.
  • [96] Pausanias, VI 20, 10-14.
  • [97] Pindarus, 0.2.92, O.3.59, P. 5.44.
  • [98] Pausanias, V 12, 5 VI 1, 6.
  • [99] Pausanias, V.8.11.
  • [100] Lampros S.P., Polites N.G., De Coubertin Pierre, Philemon P.J. & Anninos C., The Olympic Games: BC 776-AD 1896, Athens: Charles Beck, 1896, pp. 74, 84.
  • [101] Herodotus, VI 105, IX 12; Polydeuces 1.65.
  • [102] Aeschines, On the Embassy, 130; Philostratus, Gymnasticus, 4; Hesychius, Harpocration: hemero- dromos and dromokeryx.
  • [103] Herodotus, VI 105; Plutarch, Aristides, 20; Pausanias, VI 16, 5; Souidas: hemerodromos.
  • [104] Philostratus, Gymnasticus, 4.
  • [105] Herodotus, as above and IX 12 and III 118.
  • [106] Strabo, V 251c; Polybius, II 61, 4; Plutarch, Pelop., 10.
  • [107] Philostratus, Gymnasticus, 7; see: Table of Olympic Winners, 28th Olympiad B.C.
  • [108] As above.
  • [109] Plutarch, Aristides, 20.
  • [110] Migne, Patrologica, Vol. XIX; Eusebius of Pamphilus, Chronicle, Book I, Ch. 12, pp. 231¬-232; as per Philostratus (Gymnasticus, 4) the dolichodromoi were actually dromokerykes; see: Plato, Protagoras, 335e; Other hemerodromoi were also famous, see: P. Economopoulos, "Famous Hemerodromoi of Ancient Greece", article in the magazine Gymnastiki Anagennisi, No. 2, Athens 1962, pp. 21-22.
  • [111] Herodotus, II 143, VI 137; G. Kordatos, History of Ancient Greece, Vol. A, Athens 1956, pp. 16-17.
  • [112] Plutarch, Moralia, 347; Souidas: Heraclides.
  • [113] Herodotus VI 105.
  • [114] Karkavitsas A., article in the newspaper Estia, special edition, 24 March 1896, the day before the 1st Modern Olympics in Athens; N. Politis, Studies into the Life and Language of the Greek People, Vol. A, Traditions, Athens 1904, pp. 4-5, 638-639; K. Romaios, "The Marathon Runner of 490 BC", article in the magazine Gymnastiki Anagennisi, Nos. 4-5, Athens 1962, pp. 63-65.
  • [115] Kordatos G., History of Ancient Greece, Vol. B, Athens: 20th Aionas 1956, p. 24; I. Ioannidis, "The Real Route of the Marathon Messenger", article in the magazine Gymnastiki kai Athletismos, Nos. 4-5, Athens: Gymnastes Ellados, 1975, pp. 4-6; see: J.B. Bury, The Ancient Greek Historians, Vol. 1, p. 243.
  • [116] Herodotus, VI 106, 120: "After the full of the moon two thousand Lacedaemonians came to Athens"; Isocrates, Panegyric, 87.
  • [117] Paparigopoulos K., History of the Greek Nation, Vol. A, Athens: Charalambos Bouras, Athens, p. 373.
  • [118] Klissouras V., Ergophysiology, Athens: University of Athens, 1987, p. 375, "[...] Some deaths occur during tension and prolonged muscular effort that takes place in a hot and humid environment, as was the case with the death of the first Marathon runner in the classical era. It is possible that they may be due to the thermal disorder of heat stroke, which develops into ventricular fibrillation."; see: A. Desypris, "Effects of the Marathon Run on Biochemical Parameters and especially Hormones", Dissertation, Athens 1980, p. 69; for the joy of the Marathon runner's death, see: K. Romaios, K. Romaios, "The Marathon Runner of 490 BC", article in the magazine Gymnastiki Anagennisi, Nos. 4-5, Athens 1962, pp. 63-65; see: K. Paparigopoulos, as above, p. 373.
  • [119] Plutarch, Moralia, 347: "still in his armour".
  • [120] Philostratus, Gymnasticus, 7; Plutrach, Moralia, 347; Aristophanes, The Clouds, 353, Peace, 1186; Plato, Laws, 944 B; Herodotus, VII 231; Thucydides, V 34; Xenophon, Respublica Lacedaemoniorum, IX, 4-6; Plutarch, Lycurgus, 21, Agesilaus, 30; the word tresas derives from the verb treo (to be scared) and it means "coward in battle". The weapons provided a mental boost to the messengers, while at the same time they used them if someone stood in their way.
  • [121] Herodotus, VI 105-106, IX 12, III 118; Pausanias, VI 16, 5.
  • [122] Herodotus, VI 112: "without their archers and cavalry."
  • [123] Philostratus, Gymnasticus, 4; K. Kitriniaris, as above, 1961, 40 § 16.
  • [124] Thucydides, II 34; Pausanias, I 29, 4 32, 3.
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