Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2019 | 76 |

Tytuł artykułu

Presoaking treatment of propolis aqueous extract alleviates salinity stress in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants grown under calcareous saline soil conditions


Treść / Zawartość

Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



Two pot experiments were conducted during the two successive seasons of 2014 and 2015 to study the effect of propolis extract at the rates 0, 6000, 7000, 8000 and 9000 mg/L solution used as seed soaking to spinach seedlings on growth, yield and some chemical constituents of spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L.) grown under calcareous saline soil conditions. The obtained results indicated that increasing the rates of propolis extract as seed soaking application increased the growth parameters of the treated plants. The best result was obtained by the middle rate (7000 mg/L) as seed soaking in both seasons of the study. The same trend was also observed regarding all studied chemical constituents, i.e. chlorophyll a, b and total caroteniods concentration, anthocyanine, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, total free amino acid, free proline, crude protein, total indoles, total phenols, N, P and K in leaves. Moreover, soaking seeds in propolis extract before planting improved the metabolic activity of seeds through the increase in seed values in total and reducing sugars, total free amino acid, total indoles and total phenols as well as the lowest values of total carbohydrate. Thus, the coincident application of propolis extract at (7000 mg/L) as a seed soaking ingredient is recommended for improving growth, yield and chemical composition of spinach plants and for overcoming the adverse effect of saline conditions.






Opis fizyczny



  • Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum 63514, Egypt


  • [1] N.R. Galla, P.R. Pamidighantam, B. Karakala, Nutritional, textural and sensory quality of biscuits supplemented with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), International Journal of Gastronomy & Food Science. 7 (2016) 20-26.
  • [2] A. Altemimi, R. Choudhary, D.G. Watson, Effects of ultrasonic treatments on the polyphenol and antioxidant content of spinach extracts, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 24(25) (2014) 247-255.
  • [3] A. KılıçKan, N. Üçer, I. YalçIn, Some physical properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seed, African Journal of Biotechnology. 9(5) (2010) 648-655.
  • [4] S.A. Mohamed, R.A. Medani, M.A. EL-Yazal, The effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization as foliar application on botanical, characters of spinach (Spinacia oleracaea L.) plants grown under calcareous saline soil conditions, Fac. of Agric., Fayoum Univ., 16-18 January, (2006), pp. 67-83.
  • [5] S. Ors, D.L.Suarez, Salt tolerance of spinach as related to seasonal climate, Hort. Sci. (Prague) 43(1) (2016) 33–41.
  • [6] D. Mohamed et al., Na Cl stress effects on enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation pathway in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings, J. Plant Physiol. 163(12) (2005) 1247-1258.
  • [7] W.M. Semida, M.M. Rady, Presoaking application of propolis and maize grain extracts alleviates salinity stress in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Scientia Horticulturae. 168(2014) 210–217.
  • [8] A.I. Rushdi et al., Characteristics and chemical compositions of propolis from Ethiopia, Springer Plus. 3 (2014) 253.
  • [9] S. Ramnath, S. Venkataramegowda, C. Singh, Chemical Composition of Bee Propolis Collected from Different Regions in India by GCMS Analysis, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 30(1) (2015) 1319-1328.
  • [10] B.A.S. Machado et al., Chemical composition and biological activity of extracts obtained by supercritical extraction and ethanolic extraction of brown, green and red propolis derived from different geographic regions in Brazil, PLoS One. 11(1) (2016) e0145954
  • [11] A.M. Saad et al., Chemical constituents and biological activities of different solvent extracts of Prosopis farcta growing in Egypt, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy. 9(5) (2017) 67-76.
  • [12] A.A. Al-Ghamdi et al., Chemical compositions and characteristics of organic compounds in propolis from Yemen, Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 24(5) (2017) 1094-1103.
  • [13] H.M. Fathy et al., Chemical and biological diversity of propolis samples from Bulgaria, Libya and Egypt, Journal of Apitherapy. 3(2) (2018) 17–23.
  • [14] E.M. El-Assiuty et al., Propolis in controlling sorghum downy mildew and stimulating plant growth of maize, Egypt J. Appl. Sci. 15(12) (2000) 45-54.
  • [15] M.M. Rady, Response of propolis extract-presoaking seeds of some crops to salt tolerance under different soil conditions, Ph.D. Thesis Fac. Agric. Fayoum, Cairo Univ., 2002.
  • [16] E.M.A. Noweer, M. G. Dawood, Efficiency of propolis extract on faba bean plants and its role against nematode infection, Comm. Appl. Sci, Ghent University 74(2) (2009) 593-603.
  • [17] A. Abou-Sreea, S. Mahfouz, R. M. Zewainy, Effectiveness of propolis aqueous extract on chemical constituents of Calendula Plants, International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 9 (2) (2017) 137-143.
  • [18] A. Klute, Methods of Soil Analysis Part 1, Physical and Meneralogical Methods, 2nd Edition. American Society of Agronomy, Medison, Wisconsin, U.S.A., 1986.
  • [19] A.I. Page, R.H. Miller, D. Keeny, Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological Properties. 2nd Ed. (1982). Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
  • [20] L. Vechet, Effect of propolis on some species of microorganisms and moulds, In a remarkable hive product. Propolis 1978, pp.53-59. Bucharest, Romania: Apimondia Publishing house.
  • [21] P. Walker, E. Crane, Constituents of propolis, Apidologie. 18(4) (1987) 327-334.
  • [22] A.R. Wellburn, H. Lichtenthaler, Formulae and program to determine total caroteniods and chlorophyll a and b of leaf extracts different solvents. In advances in photosynthesis Research (Sybesma C.Ed.) Vol. II, 1984, pp. 9-12. Mortinus Njihoff Dr.W. Junk publishers, The Hague.
  • [23] D. Herbert, P.J. Phipps, R.F. Strange, Determination of total carbohydrates. Methods in Microbian. 5 (B) (1971) 209-244.
  • [24] A.O.A.C., Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, Sixteenth ed. (1995), Washington D.C., USA.
  • [25] R. E. Hoagland, Effect of glycophosphate on metabolism of phenolic compounds. VI. Effect of glyphosime and glyphosate metabolites on phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, growth, protein and chlorophyll an anthocyanin levels in soybean seedlings, Weed Sci. 28 (1980) 393.
  • [26] J. Jayarman, Laboratory Manual in Biochemistry. Willey Eastren limited, New York,1981, pp. 61-73.
  • [27] P. Larson et al., On the biogenesis of some indole compounds in Acetobacter xylimum, Physiol. Plant. (15) (1962) 552-565.
  • [28] L.S. Batcs, R.P. Waldren, I.D. Tearc, Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies, Plant and Soil. 39 (1973) 205-207.
  • [29] K.A. Gomez, A.A. Gomez, Statistical Analysis Procedure of Agricultural Research, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1983, pp. 25-30.
  • [30] A. B. Nikolaev, Defining the bee town, In A remarkable hive product: Propolis. Scientific data and suggestions concerning its composition, properties and possible use in therapeutics. Apimondia Standing Commission on Beekeeping Technology and Equipment, Bucharest (1978). ( c.f. A.G. Hegazi, Propolis an overview, International Symposium on Apitherapy, Natoinal Research Center, Cairo, Egypt, March 8-9th, 1997.
  • [31] M.I. Salama et al., Leaf pigment and nutrient element content of Roumi Red grape nurslings as affected by salinity and some growth regulators, J. Agric. Rec. Tanta Univ. 18(2) (1992) 382-391.
  • [32] H. M. El-Saht, Metribuzin herbicide induced a defense mechanism in normal and NaCl-stressed castor bean and maize plants, Egypt. J. Hort. 28(2) (2001) 277-290.
  • [33] T. J. Flowers, P.P. Troke, A.R.Yeo, The mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 28 (1977) 89-121.
  • [34] V.S. Bankova, S.L. De Castro, M.C. Marucci, Propolis: recent advances in chemistry and plant origin, Apidologie. 31 (2000) 3–15.
  • [35] M.A. EL-Tayeb, Effect of thiamin seed presoaking on the physiology of Sorghum bicolor L. plants grown under salinity stress, Egypt, J. Bot. 35(2) (1995) 201-214.
  • [36] P. Gopala Rao, C. Damodara Reddy, J.K. Ramaiah, Effect of B vitamins on the protein component of cluster bean Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L., Taub, Ann. Bot. 59 (1987) 281- 292.
  • [37] R.M. Devlin, F.H. Witham, Plant physiology.4th Ed. CBS Publishers and Distributors, 485 Jain Bhawan, Bhola Nath Nagar, Shahdara, Delhi-110 032 (India), 1986, p. 443.
  • [38] N. Das, M. Misra, A.N. Misra, Sodium chloride salt stress induced metabolic change in callus cultures of Pearl Millet (Pennissetum americanum L. Leek.) free solute accumulation, J. Plant Physiol. 137 (1990) 244-246.
  • [39] S. Weidner, Role of gibberellins and cytokinins in regulation of germination during development and ripening of Triticale caryopes L., Acta Societatis, Botanicorum Poloninae. 53(2) (1984) 257-270.
  • [40] L. Zhaoliang et al., The effect of paclobutrazol on plant histology of some crops, Acta Agric Shanghai. 11 (1995) 43-47.

Typ dokumentu


Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.