Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2006 | 08 | 1 |
Tytuł artykułu

Muntingia calabura - an attractive food plant of Cynopterus sphinx -deserves planting to lessen orchard damage

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Of the 14 species of pteropodid bats that are found in India, Cynopterus sphinx receives most of the blame for causing damage to commercial fruit crops. We observed the number of visits made by C. sphinx to four species of commercial fruits in orchards (Mangifera indica, Achras sapota, Psidium guajava and Vitis vinifera), and four species of wild/non-commercial fruits (Muntingia calabura, Ficus bengalensis, F. religiosa and Bassia latifolia) in suburban areas. The total number of bat visits to M. calabura was significantly greater than to all other fruit species. The range of percentages of total nightly bat visits was from as low as 5% (V. vinifera) to 47% (F. religiosa), in comparison to the total nightly visits made to M. calabura. In addition, the number of mist-netted individuals of C. sphinx per hour near M. calabura was also significantly higher than near other fruit species. We suggest that if M. calabura is grown in and around orchards, damage caused by C. sphinx to commercial fruit crops may be decreased and therefore would serve as a non-destructive method for managing removal of commercial fruits by bats.
Słowa kluczowe
Opis fizyczny
  • Department of Animal Behaviour and Physiology, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, India
  • Advani, R. 1982. Feeding, foraging and roosting behaviour of the fruit eating bats and damage to fruit crops in Rajasthan and Gujarat. Säugetier- kundliche Mitteilungen, 30: 46-48.
  • Balasingh, j., s. suthakar isaac, and R. subbaraj. 1992. A convenient device for tagging bats in the field. Bat Research News, 33: 6.
  • Banack, S. A. 1998. Diet selection and resource use by flying foxes (genus Pteropus). Ecology, 79: 1949-1967.
  • Bates, P. J. J., and D. L. Harrison. 1997. Bats of the Indian subcontinent. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks, 258 pp.
  • Bhat, H. R. 1994. Observations on the food and feeding behaviour of Cynopterus sphinx Vahl (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) at Pune, India. Mammalia, 58: 363-370.
  • Corlett, R. T. 2004. Flower visitors and pollination in the Oriental (Indomalayan) region. Biological Reviews, 79: 497-532.
  • Dumont, E. R. 2003. Bats and fruit: an ecomorphological approach. Pp. 398-429, in Bat ecology (T. H. Kunz and M. B. Fenton, eds.). The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 779 pp.
  • Elangovan, V., G. Marimuthu, and T. H. Kunz. 1999.Temporal patterns of individual and group foraging behaviour in the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx, in South India. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 15: 681-687.
  • Elangovan, V., G. Marimuthu, and T. H. Kunz. 2000 Nectar feeding behaviour in the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Pteropodidae). Acta Chiropterologica, 2: 1-5.
  • Elangovan, V., G. Marimuthu, and T. H. Kunz. 2001. Temporal patterns of resource use by the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae). Journal of Mammal­ogy, 82: 161-165.
  • Fleming, P. J. S„ and D. Robinson. 1987. Flying-fox (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) on the north coast of New South Wales: damage to stone fruit crops and control methods. Australian Mammalogist, 10: 143-145.
  • Fleming, T. H„ and V. J. Sosa. 1994. Effects of nectarivorous and frugivorous bats on reproductive success of plants. Journal of Mammalogy, 75: 845-851.
  • Fujita, M. S. 1988. Flying foxes and economics. Bats, 6: 4-9.
  • Fujita, M. S., and M. D. Tuttle. 1991. Flying foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae): threatened animals of key ecological and economic importance. Conservation Biology, 5: 455-463.
  • Gentry, A. H. 1974. Flowering phenology and diversity in tropical Bignoniaceae. Biotropica, 6: 64-68.
  • Hall, L. S., and G. C. Richards. 1987. Crop protection and management of flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). Australian Mammalogist, 10: 137-139.
  • Heithaus, E. R. 1982. Coevolution between bats and plants. Pp. 327-367, in Ecology of bats (T. H. Kunz, ed.). Plenum Press, New York, 425 pp.
  • Jacobsen, N. H. G, and E. DuPlessis. 1976. Observations on the ecology and biology of the cape fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacas leachi in the Eastern Transvall. South African Journal of Sciences, 72: 270-273.
  • Krishnan, R. 2000. Fruit bats and their management in orchards. Bat Net, 1: 4.
  • Loebel, R., and G. Sanewski. 1987. Flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) as orchard pests. Australian Mammalogist, 10: 147-150.
  • Mickleburoh, S. P., A. M. Hutson, and P. A. Racey. 2002. A review of the global conservation status of bats. Oryx, 36: 18-34.
  • Mistry, S. 1995. The bats of India. Bats, 13: 11-15.
  • Moran, S., and H. Keidar. 1993. Checklist of vertebrate damage to agriculture in Israel. Crop Protection, 12: 171-182.
  • Nassar, J. M., N. Ramirez, and O. Linares. 1997. Comparative pollination biology of Venezuelan columnar cacti and the role of nectar-feeding bats in their sexual reproduction. American Journal of Botany, 84: 918-927.
  • Nathan, P. T., H. Raghuram, V. Elangovan, T. Karuppudurai, and G. Marimuthu. 2005. Bat pollination of kapok tree, Ceiba pentandra. Current Science, 88: 1679-1681.
  • Phillips, W. W. A. 1980. Manual of the mammals of Sri Lanka. Part 1. Wildlife and Nature Protection Society of Sri Lanka, Colombo, 389 pp.
  • Rajan, K. E„ N. G. Nair, and R. Subbaraj. 1999. Seasonal food preference of the Indian short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (Vahl) (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 96: 24-27.
  • Shilton, L. A., J. D. Altringham, S. G. Compton, and V. Whittaker. 1999. Old World fruit bats can be long-distance seed dispersers through extended retention of viable seeds in the gut. Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Biological Sciences, 266: 219-223.
  • Singaravelan, N. 2002. Foraging behaviour of fruit bats in orchards. Ph.D. Thesis, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, 163 pp.
  • Singaravelan, N., and G. Marimuthu. 2004. Nectar feeding and pollen carrying from Ceiba pentandra by pteropodid bats. Journal of Mammalogy, 85: 1-7.
  • Sokal, R. R., and F. J. Rohlf. 1995. Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, 887 pp.
  • Srinivasalu, C., and B. Srinivasalu. 2002. Greater short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus sphinx) foraging and damage in vineyards in India. Acta Chiropterologica, 4: 167-171.
  • Tidemann, C. R., and J. E. Nelson. 1987. Flying foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) and bananas: some interactions. Australian Mammalogist, 10: 133-136.
  • Tidemann, C. R., S. Kelson, and G. Jamieson. 1997. Flying-fox damage to orchard fruit in Australia — incidence, extent and economic impact. Australian Biology, 10: 177-184.
  • Tschapka, M., and O. von Helversen. 1999a. Bat pollination of Webrocereus tunilla, an epiphytic rain forest cactus with functional flagelliflory. Plant Biology, 1: 554-559.
  • Tschapka, M., and O. von Helversen. 19996. Pollinators of syntopic Marcgravia species in Costa Rican lowland rain forest: bats and opposums. Plant Biology, 1: 382-388.
  • Verghese, A. 1998. Non-destructive control of the bat, Cynopterus sphinx Vahl (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in grapes (Vitis vinifera Linnaeus) in India. International Journal of Pest Management, 44: 81-85.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.