Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
1998 | 458 |
Tytuł artykułu

Phosphorus removal from waste water by filter media: retention and estimated plant availability of sorbed phosphorus

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Phosphorus (P) is regarded as a limited resource and should be recycled in agriculture. Other reasons for recycling this nutrient are that excess P is hazard­ous to the environment and that cadmium (Cd) often is added when agriculture soils are fertilised with P. In Sweden, two major sources to P discharge in rural areas can be distinguished; waste water discharge from private households and agricultural runoff. This waste water is often poorly treated, if treated at all, and large amounts of P will reach different water bodies causing eutrophication. Actions must therefore be taken in order to prevent untreated waste water to reach the water bodies. Ecologically engineered waste water treatment facilities such as constructed wet-lands and infiltration plants are attractive for removing pollutants. These facilities can be designed to further improve the P retention by using reactive media which possess high capacity to retain large amounts of P. In order to recycle the P in plant production, the sorbed P must be plant available. Reactive media of natural as well as of anthropogenic origin, were tested with regard to their phosphorus retention capacity in batch experiment as well as in column experiment in the laboratory. Physical and chemical properties of the materials were performed to estimate the usage of the reactive media in waste water treatment plants. Chemical extractions were performed with methods used for estimating plant available P in order to obtain a first indication of the plant availability. This paper reports on the results obtained in the experiments described above for a low-cost and low-tech solution of waste water treatment in rural areas.
Słowa kluczowe
Opis fizyczny
  • Division of Land and Water Resources, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
  • National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences NIAES, Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan
  • [1] Ав Svensk Leca. 1994. Leca Lattklinker Egenskapsredovisning. BSA K NR Kар 3,7 (In Swedish).
  • [2] Ae N., Arihara J., Okada K. 1991. Phosphorus response of chickpea and evaluation of phosphorus availability in Indian Alfisols and Vertisols. In: Johansen, C., Lee, K.K. & Sahrawat, K.L. (Eds.). Phospho­rus nutrition of grain legumes in the semi-arid tropics: 33-41. ICRISAT, Asia Center, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India: 254 pp.
  • [3] Bray R.H., Kurtz L.T. 1945. Determination of total, organic and avai­lable forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Sci. 59: 39-45.
  • [4] Brix H. 1994. Constructed wetlands for municipal wastewater treatment in Europe. In: Global Wetlands: Old World and New, W.J. Mitsch (Ed.), Elsevier Sciences, b.v., pp. 325-333.
  • [5] Cole C.V., Olsen S.R., Scott C.O. 1953. The nature of phosphate sor­ption by calcium carbonate. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 17: pp 352-356.
  • [6] Egnér H., Riehm H., Domingo W.R. 1960. Untersuchungen über die chemische Bode-analyse als Gmndlage für Beurteiling des Nährstoffzustandes der Böden. II Chemische Exlraktionsmethoden zur Phosphor und Kaliumbestimmung. Kungliga lantbrukshögskolans annaler 26, pp. 199-215 (In German).
  • [7] Hammer D.A. 1989. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Lewis Publishers, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan, 831 pp.
  • [8] Hylander L.D., Makino Т., Ae N. 1997. Bray extractable phosphorus as influenced by extraction time, pH and flouride concentration in An- disols (Accepted for publication).
  • [9] Jenssen ED., Krogstad Т., Briseid Т., Norgaard E. 1991. Testing of reactive filter media (Leca) for use in agricultural drainage systems. Inter. Seminar of the Technical Section of CIGR on Environmental Challenges and Solutions in Agricultural Engineering. Ås-NLH, pp. 160-166.
  • [10] Jenssen P.D., Maehlum Т., Warner W.S. 1994. The influence of cold climate upon constructed wetlands: performance of treating domestic wastewater and landfill leachate in Norway. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Individual and Small Commu­nity Sewage Systems. 11-13 December, 1994, Atlanta, Georgia.
  • [11] Johansson L. 1997. Use of Leca for the removal of phosphorus from waste water. Wat. Sci. Tech., Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 87-93.
  • [12] Johansson L. 1998. Industrial by-products and natural substrata as phosphorus sorbents. Manuscript.
  • [13] Kadlec R.H., Knight R.L. 1996. Treatment Wetlands. CRC Press, Lewis Publishers, 893 pp.
  • [14] Mann R.A. 1990. Phosphorus removal by constructed wetlands: Sub­stratum adsorption In: Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Co­ntrol (Adv. Wat. Pollut. Control no. 11), P.F. Cooper & B.C. Findlater (Eds.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 97-105.
  • [15] Mann R.A., Bavor H.J. 1993. Phosphorus removal in constructed wet­lands using gravel and industrial waste substrata. Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 107-113.
  • [16] Marschner H. 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 2nd Ed. Aca­demic Press Inc. London, UK. 889 pp.
  • [17] McKay G. (Ed.) 1995. Use of Adsorbents for the Removal of Pollutants from Wastewater. CRC Press, Inc.: 186 pp.
  • [18] Moshiri G.A. 1993. Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Improve­ment. Lewis Publishers. Boca Raton, Florida: 632 pp.
  • [19] Murphy J., Riley J.P 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 27: pp. 31-36.
  • [20] Naturvårdsverket 1995. Miljöanpassade vatten- och avloppssytem. Rapport 4429 (In Swedish).
  • [21] Netter R., Bischofsberger W. 1990. Sewage treatment by planted soil filters. In: Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control (Adv. Wat. Pollut. Control no. 11), P.F. Cooper & B.C. Findlater (Eds.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK: pp. 525-528.
  • [22] Olsen S.R., Sommers L.E. 1982. Phosphorus. In: Page et al. (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis, part 2. Chemical and microbiological pro­perties. 2nd ed. Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI: pp. 403-430.
  • [23] Shoji S., Nanzyo M., Dahlgren R.A. 1993. Volcanic ash soils. Gene­sis, properties and utilization. Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands: 288 pp.
  • [24] Sikora L.J., Bent M.G., Corey R.B., Keeney D.R. 1976. Septic nitro­gen and phosphorus removal test system. Ground Water, 14(5): pp. 309-314.
  • [25] Steiner G.R., Freeman Jr. R.J. 1989. Configuration and substrate de­sign consideration for constructed wetlands wastewater treatment. In: Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment, D.A. Hammer (Ed.), Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, Michigan: pp. 363-377.
  • [26] Svensk Standard SS 028310. Markundersökningar - Extraktion och bestämning av fosfor, kalium, kalcium, magnesium och natrium ur jord med ammoniumlaktat/attiksyralösning (AL-metoden) (Soil analysis - Extraction and determination of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium from soils with ammonium lactate I acetic acid solution). Standardiseringskommissionen i Sverige (In Swedish).
  • [27] Svensk Standard SS 028126. Vattenundersökningar - bestämning av fosfat i vatten (Determination of phosphate in water). Standardisering­skommissionen i Sverige (In Swedish).
  • [28] Tofflemire T.J., Chen M. 1977. Phosphate removal by sands and soils. Ground Water, 15(5): pp. 377-387.
  • [29] Ulén B. 1997. Förluster av fosfor frln jordbruksmark. Naturvårdsverket Rapport 4731 (In Swedish).
  • [30] Willadsen C.T., Riger-Kusk O., Qvist B. 1990. Removal of nutritive salts from two Danish root zone systems. In: Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control (Adv. Wat. Pollut. Control no. 11), P.F. Cooper & B.C. Findlater (Eds.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK: pp. 525-528.
  • [31] Wood A. 1990. Constmcted wetlands for wastewater treatment - engi­neering and design con- siderations. In: Constructed Wetlands in Wa­ter Pollution Control (Adv. Wat. Pollut. Control no. 11), P.F. Co­oper & B.C. Findlater (Eds.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK: pp. 481-494.
  • [32] Zhu Т., Jenssen P.D., Maehlum Т., Krogstad T. 1997. Phosphorus sorption and chemical characteristics of Lightweight Aggregates (LWA) - Potential filter media in treatment wetlands. Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 35, No. 5: pp. 103-108.
  • [33] Zurayk R., Nimah M., Geha Y., Rizk C. 1997. Phosphorus retention in the soil matrix of constructed wetlands. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant. Anal., 28(6-8): pp. 521-535.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.