Znaczenie izomerów trans kwasów tłuszczowych w żywieniu człowieka
Treść / Zawartość
Role of trans fatty acids in human nutrition
Trans-isomers of unsaturated fatty acids are formed in fairly great amount in the process of hydrogenation of fats, e.g. in hydrogenated rapeseed oil they account for about 60«/o of the total number of double bonds. Therefore margarines and other vegetable oils of solid consistence containing plant oils partly hydrogenated contain lower or higher level of thesse isomers.The role of trans-isomers in human nutrition has not yet been fully elucidated. The early studies on the nutritional value of these acids demonstrated that they produce no pathological changes in experimental animals, on condition that the diet contains a sufficient amount of essential unsaturated fatty acids in the cis form. If this is not the case, syptoms characteristic of deficiency of these essential fatty acids may develop since it is known that these acids changing to the trans form lose the biological properties of essential acids. Trans-isomers were found to be absorbed and used-up in the organism as a source of energy, similarly as the cis-isomers. The metabolism of trans-isomers is not well konwn yet. They are thought to undergo metabolic processes rather as saturated acids not as cis-unsaturated fatty acids. Trans-isomers of fatty acids were observed to interfere specifically with the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids, that is they can inhibit the activity of delta-5-desaturase and delta-6-desaturase enzymes that participate in the metabolism of essential unsaturated fatty acids from the n-6 and n-3 groups what may lead to reduction of arachidonic acid level in tissues. Trans-isomers may replace linoleic and linolenic acids as substrates for desaturation and elongation of the carbon chain, and this way atypical compounds may be produced. These compounds after incorporation into cell membranes may affect their physiological functions. Atypical compounds may also be formed, which differ from those which are normal precursors of eicosanoids. This finally leads to formation of eicosanoids of changed structure. In the lipids of human tissues neither arachidonic acid, nor any other long- -chain polyunsaturated fatty acids containing double bonds in the trans configuration has been found. However, in the lipids of the tissues of rats receiving these isopiers in diet raised amount of arachidonic acid with trans bonds was found. In in vitro experiments considerable biochemical differences between various trans-isomers were demonstrated, and the position of the double bond was found to play possibly an important role. Each trans-isomer (geometric) of a polyunsaturated fatty acid may occur in several configurations, moreover, all these isomers of monounsaturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids are also position isomers (changed position of one or more double bonds). This influences the affinity of the enzymes to various isomers. This problem remains as yet to be explained. Since a long time trans-isomers have been known to be incorporated after ingestion into the lipids of human and animal tissues. They can be transported from the mother to fetal tissues or into milk. The effect of trans-isomers incorporated into the lipids of biological membranes on the metabolic processes was studied. It was found that they had no effect on the synthesis of eicosanoids in blood platelets and in aortic wall segments despite reduced content of arachidonic acid in cell membranes. They have also no influence either on the functions of hepatic mitochondria or cardiac mitochondria despite evident changes in the composition of fatty acids in the mitochondrial membranes in these organs. It is considered that adequate quantity of linoleic acid in the diet prevents the adverse effects of trans-isomers. According to some authors, it amounts at least to 2% of the total energy intake. The arising question is if there is a correlation between the ingestion of trans-isomers and the development of atherosclerosis. However, the opinions on the effect of the diatery trans-isomers on serum cholesterol content in humans and animals and on the prevalence and severity of atherosclerotic lesions are controversial. As yet the role played by trans- -isomers incorporated into the myocardial lipids has not been explained, especially in the condition of increased myocardial requirements for energy which is derived from fatty acids in 60—90%. Recently attention has been called to the possible correlation between the amount of trans-isomers in diet and morbidity and mortality from neoplastic diseases. According to one hypothesis trans-isomers causing changes in the composition of fatty acids in cell membranes produce changes in their function leading ultimately to neoplastic proliferation of certain tissues. The effect of dietary trans-isomers of fatty acids on human organism is still an open question requiring further studies. Opinions on the biological value of fats containing these isomers presented by various authors are controversial.
- 1.Ackman R. G.: Fatty acid composition of fish oils. In: Nutritional evaluation of long-chain fatty acids in fish oil. Ed: S.M. Barlow. New York, Academic Press, 1982.
- 2. Brenner R. R.: Nutritional and hormonal factors influencing desaturation of essential fatty acids. Progr. Lipid Res., 1982, 20, 41.
- 3. Brisson G. J.: Lipids in Human Nutrition. England, MTP Press Limited, Lancester, 1982.
- 4. Brown R. R.: Effects of dietary fat on incidence of spontaneus and induced cancer in mice. Cancer Res., 1981, 41, 3741.
- 5. Budzyńska-Topolowska J., Kuliszewski H., et alIncorporation des acides gras de formes trans dans les lipides corporels du rat ayant ingere des margarines a base d’huile de colza. Oleagineux 1971, 11, 701.
- 6. Craig-Schmidt M. C., Weete J. D„ Faircloth S. A., et al.: The effect of hydrogenated fat in the diet of nursing mothers on lipid composition and prostaglandin content in human milk. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 1984, 39, 778.
- 7. Deuel H. J., Hallman L. F., Movitt E.: Studies on the comparative nutritive value of rats. VI. Growth and reproduction over 10 generations on Sherman diet B where butterfat was remplaced by margarine fat. J. Nutr., 1945, 29, 309.
- 8. Deuel H. J., Greenberg S. M., Savage E. E., et al.: Studies on the comparative nutritive value of rats. J. Nutr.. 1950, 42, 239.
- 9. Dhopeshwarkar G. A.: Naturally occuring food toxicants: toxic lipids. In: Progress in lipid research. Ed: R.T. Holman. New York, Pergamon Press. 1982, vol. 19.
- 10. Egwim P. O., Kumme- row F. A.: Incorporation and distribution of dietary elaidate in the major lipid classes of rat heart and plasma lipoprotein. J. Nutr., 1972, 102, 783.
- 11.Emken E. A.: Utilization and effects of isomeric fatty acids in humans. In: Geometrical and positional fatty acid isomers. Ed: E.A. Emken. Amer. Oil Chemist’s Society, Champaign III, 1979.
- 12. Emken E. A.: Influence of human trans-12-, and cis-12-octadecenoic acid isomers on fatty acid composition of human plasma lipids. Prog. Lipid Res., 1981, 20, 135.
- 13. Emken E. A.: Biochemistry of unsaturated fatty acid isomers. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc., 1983, 60, 995.
- 14. Emken E. A.: Nutritional considerations in soybean oil usage. In: Proceedings of World Soybean Research Conference III. Ed: R. Shibles. London, Westwiew Press, 1985.
- 15. Emken E. A., Rohweder W. K., Adlof R. O., et al.: Metabolism in humans of cis-12, trans-15-octadecadienoic acid relative to palimitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. Lipids 1987, 22, 495.
- 16. Enig M. G., Pallansch L. A., Sampugna J., et al.: Fatty acid composition of the fat in selected food items with emphasis on trans fatty acids. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc., 1983. 60, 1788.
- 17. Erickson A.B.. Coots R. H., Mattson F. H., et al.: The effect of partial hydrogenation of dietary fats, of the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids and of dietarycholesterol upon plasma lipids in man. J. Clin. Invest., 1964, 43, 2017.
- 18. Erickson K. L., Schlanger D. S.. Adams D. A., et al.: Influence of dietary fatty acid concentration and geometric configuration on murine mammary tumorigenesis and experimental metastasis. J. Nutr., 1984, 114, 1834.
- 19. FASEB Report of the ad-hoc Committee of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (1985) Health Aspects of Dietary Trans Fatty Acids. Ed: F. R. Senti. Contract Number FDA 223-83-2020.
- 20. Gottenbos J. J.: Biological effects of trans fatty acids. In: Dietary fats and health. Ed: E. G. Perkins. Amer. Oil Chemist’s Society, Champaign. Illinois 1983.
- 21. Gurr M. I.: Trans fatty acids. International Dairy Federation Document 1983, 166, 5.
- 22. Harper H. A., Rodvell V. M., Mayes P. A.: Zarys chemii fizjologicznej. Warszawa, PZWL, 1983.
- 23. Holman R. T.: Influence of hydrogenated fats on the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In: The role of fats in human nutrition. Ed: F. B. Padley. London, Society of Chemical Industry, Ellis Harwood, 1985.
- 24.Hornstra G.. Vles R.: Effects of dietary fat on atherosclerosis and thrombosis. In: International Conference on Atherosclerosis. Ed: L. A. Carlson. New York, Raven Press, 1978.
- 25. Hornstra G., Christ-Hazelhoff E, Hademan E., et al.: Fish oil feeding lovers thromboxane and prostacyclin production by rat platelets and aorta and does not result in theformation of prostaglandin 1.3. Prostaglandins 1981, 21, 727.
- 26. Hoy C. E., Holmer G.: Incorporation of cis- and trans-octadenoic acids into the membranes of rat liver mitochondria. Lipids 1979, 14, 717.
- 27. Horrobin D. F.: Essential fatty acids: a review. In: Clinical uses of essential fatty acids. Ed: D. F. Horrobin. London, Eden Press, 1982.
- 28. Hoy C. E., Holmer G., Kaner N., et al.: Acyl group distributions in tissue lipids of rats fed evening promrose oil (γ-linolenic plus linoleic acid) or soybean oil (α-linolenic plus linoleic acid). Lipids 1983, 18, 760.
- 29. Hwang D. H., Chanmugan R., Auding R.: Effects of dietary 9-trans, 12-trans linoleate on arachidonic acid metabolism in rat platelets. Lipids 1982,17, 307,
- 30. Ide T., Watenabe AL, Sugano AL, et al.: Activities of liver mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes in rats fed trans fat. Lipids 1987, 22, 6.
- 31. Jensen R. G., Clark R. AL, Ferris A. AL: Composition of the lipids in human milk: a review. Lipids, 1980, 15, 345.
- 32. Johnson P. V., Johnson O. B., Kummerow F. A.: Occurence of trans fatty acids in human tissue. Science 1957, 126, 698.
- 33. Kinsella J. E., Bruckner G., Mai J., et al.: Metabolism of trans fatty acids with emphasis on the effects of trans, transoctadecadienoate on lipid composition, essential fatty acids, and prostaglandins. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 1981, 34, 2307.
- 34. Kritchevsky D., Davidson L. M., Veight M., et al.: Effect of trans-unsaturated fats on experimental atherosclerosis in vervet monkeys. Atherosclerosis 1984, 51, 123.
- 35. Kummerow F. A.: Nutrition inbalance and angiotoxins as dietary risk factors in coronary heart disease. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 1979, 32,58.
- 36. Lawson L. D., Kummerow F. A.: /β-oxidation of the coenzyme A esters of elaidic, oleic and stearic acids and their full-cycle intermediates by rat heart mitochondria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1979, 573, 245.
- 37. Lawson L. D.. Hill E. G., Holman R. T.: Dietary fats containing concentrates of cis or trans octadecenoates and the patterns of polyunsaturated fatty acids of liver phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Lipids 1985, 20, 262.
- 38. Mahfouz M. M., Valicenti A. AL, Holman R. T.: Desaturation of isomeric trans-octadecenoic acids by rat liver microsomes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1980, 618, 1.
- 39. Mahfouz M. AL, Johnson S., Holman R. T.: The effect of isomeric trans 18:1 acids on the desaturation of palmitic, linoleic and eicosa-18, 11, 14-trienoic acid by rat liver microsomes. Lipids 1980, 15, 100.
- 40. Mead J. F., Alfin-Slater R. B., Howton D. R., et al.: Lipids. Chemistry, biochemistry and nutrition. New York, Plenum Press, 1986.
- 41. Moore C. E.. Alfin-Slater R. B., Aftergood L.: Incorporation and diseppearance of trans fatty acids in rat tissues. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 1980, 33, 2318.
- 42. Moore C. E., Alfin-Slater R. B., Aftergood L.: Effect of trans fatty acids on serum lecitin: cholesterol acyltransferase in rats. J. Nutr., 1980, 110, 2284.
- 43. Mounts T. L.: Hydrogenation of edible fats. In: Fat production and consumption. Ed: C. Galli. New York, Plenum Press, 1986.
- 44. Munsch N.: Influence de l’ingestion de trielaidine sur la composition en acides gras des lipides hepatiques et plasmatiques de rat. Ann. Nutr. Aliment., 1970, 24, 21.
- 45. Niewiadomski H.: Technologia nasion rzepaku. Warszawa, PWN, 1983.
- 46. Ohlroge J. B., Emken E. A., Gulley R. AL: Human tissue lipids: occurence of fatty acid isomers from dietary hydrogenated oils. J. Lipid Res., 1981, 22, 955.
- 47. Ohlroge J. B., Gulley R. AT., Emken E. A.: Occurence of octadecenoic fatty acid isomers from hydrogenated fats in human tissue lipid classes. Lipids 1982, 17, 552.
- 48. Parodi P. W.: Distribution of isomeric octadecenoic fatty acid in milk fat. J. Dairy Sci., 1976, 59, 1870.
- 49. Picciano M. F., Perkins E. G.: Identification of the trans isomers of octadecenoic acid in human milk. Lipids 1977, 12, 407.
- 50. Rapacz J., Elson C. E., Lalich J. J.: Correlation of an immunogenetically defined lipoprotein type with aortie intimal liposis in swine. Exp. Mol. Path., 1977 27, 249.
- 51. Royce S. AL, Holmes R. P., Takagi T., et al.: The influence of dietary isomeric and saturated fatty acids on atherosclerosis and eicosanoid synthesis in swine. Ann. J. Clin. Nutr., 1984, 39, 215.
- 52. Royce S. AL, Holmes R. P.: The saturation and isomerization of dietary fatty acids and the respiratory properties of rat heart mitochondria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1984, 792, 371.
- 53. Selenskas S.L.,Jp. M. AL, Jp. C.: Similarity between trans fat and saturated fat in themodification of rat mammary carcinogenesis. Cancer Res., 1984, 44, 1321.
- 54. Sgoutas D., Kummerow F.: Incorporation of trans fatty acids into tissue lipids. J. Amer. Clin. Nutr., 1970, 23, 1111.
- 55. Slover H. T., Thompson R. H. Jr., Davis C. S., et al.: Lipids in margarines and margarine-like foods. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc., 1985, 62, 775.
- 56. Szczygieł A.: Podstawy fizjologii zywienia. Warszawa, PZWL, 1975.
- 57. Thomas L. H., Jones P. R., Winter J. A., et al.: Hydrogenated oils and fats: the presence of chemically modified fatty acids in human adipose tissue. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 1981, 34, 877.
- 58. Thomas L. H., Winter J. H.: Ischaemic heart disease and consumption of hydrogenated marine oils. Hum. Nutr. Food Sci. Nutr., 1987, 41F, 153.
- 59. Vergroesen A. J.: Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease: possible modes of action of linoleic acid. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 1972, 31, 323.
- 60. Vergroesen A. J., Gottenbos J. J.: The role of fats in human nutrition: an introduction. In: The role of fats in human nutrition. Ed: A. J. Vergroesen. New York, Academic Press, 1975.
- 61. Watanabe M., Koga T., Sugano M.: Influence of dietary cis- and trans fat on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumors and fecal steroid excretion in Fischer 344 rats. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 1985, 42, 475.
- 62. Watts T. A., Gullet E. A., Sabry J. H., et alTendances de la consomation alimentaire et de la nutrition (Groupe de la politique alimentaire: Rapport). Ministere de la Consommation et des Corporations Canada, Ottawa 1977.
- 63. Wood R.: Incorporation of dietary cis and trans octadecenoate isomers in the lipid classes of various rat tissues. Lipids 1979, 14, 975.
- 64. Zevenbergen J. L.: Biological effects of trans fatty acids. In: Fat production and consumption, Ed: C. Galli. New York, Plenum Press, 1986.
- 65. Zevenbergen J. L., Houstmuller U. M. T., Gottenbos J. J.: Linoleic acid requirement of rats fed trans fatty acids. Lipids 1988, 23, 178.
Rekord w opracowaniu