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Bacteriological, clinical and virulence aspects of Aeromonas-associated diseases in humans

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Aeromonads have been isolated from varied environmental sources such as polluted and drinking water, as well as from tissues and body fluids of cold and warm-blooded animals. A phenotypically and genotypically heterogenous bacteria, aeromonads can be successfully identified by ribotyping and/or by analysing gyrB gene sequence, apart from classical biochemical characterization. Aeromonads are known to cause scepticemia in aquatic organisms, gastroenteritis and extraintestinal diseases such as scepticemia, skin, eye, wound and respiratory tract infections in humans. Several virulence and antibiotic resistance genes have been identified and isolated from this group, which if present in their mobile genetic elements, may be horizontally transferred to other naive environmental bacteria posing threat to the society. The extensive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics has given rise to many resistant varieties of bacteria. Multidrug resistance genes, such as NDM1, have been identified in this group of bacteria which is of serious health concern. Therefore, it is important to understand how antibiotic resistance develops and spreads in order to undertake preventive measures. It is also necessary to search and map putative virulence genes of Aeromonas for fighting the diseases caused by them. This review encompasses current knowledge of bacteriological, environmental, clinical and virulence aspects of the Aeromonas group and related diseases in humans and other animals of human concern.
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