Prevalence of races and biotypes of Ralstonia solanacearum in India
Treść / Zawartość
Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is the most destructive disease of plants. Fifty-seven isolates of R. solanacearum causing wilt on different host plants viz., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), brinjal (S. melongena), potato (S. tuberosum), bird of paradise (Strelitzia reginae), ginger (Zingiber officinale), chili (Capsicum annuum), capsicum (Capsicum annuum), davana (Artemisia pallens) and coleus (Coleus forskohlii) were collected from the different agro climatic zones of Karnataka and other parts of India. In this study, 57 isolates were differentiated into race on the basis of their pathogenicity and their ability to infect different host. The isolates were established as race-1. None of the isolates infected mulberry and banana. Fifty-four isolates oxidized and utilized both the disaccharides and sugar alcohols. These isolates were positioned as biovars-3 according to Haywards classification system. Three isolates from Kerala, two ginger, and one tomato strain were not able to utilize dulcitol and lactose. Hence, they were categorized into a new taxo group within the system and designated as biovar-3B for the first time in India. There were 54 isolates which were confirmed as race-1, biovar-3, and 3 isolates were confirmed as race-1, biovar-3B by morphological, physiological, biochemical and pathogenicity studies. Two sets of primers (OLI1 & Y2 and Y1 & Y2) were used in this study to authenticate the organism. Furthermore, the identity of the isolates was confirmed by a serological diagnostic kit obtained from the International Potato Research Center, Lima, Peru, and single chain variable fragment antibody specific to R. solanacearum.
- Allen C., Prior P., Hayward A. C. 2005. Bacterial Wilt Disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex. APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA, 528 pp.
- Anonymous. 1957. Manual of Microbial Methods. Society of American Bacteriologists, McGraw, New York, 315 pp.
- Bhattacharya P., Samajpatti N., Bhattacharya P. 2003. Characteristics of Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum from Gangetic West Bengal. J. Mycopathol. Res. 41: 15-19.
- Buddenhagen I. W., Sequeira L., Kelman A. 1962. Designation of races in Pseudomonas solanacearum. Phytopathology 52, p. 726.
- Chandrashekara K. N., Prasannakumar M. K. 2010. New Host Plants for Ralstonia solanacearum from India. Plant Pathology. 59 (6): 11-78. Doi:10.1111/J.1365-3059.2010.02358.X
- Chandrashekara K. N., Jagadish K., Krishnamurthy K. B., Rashmi S., Prasanna Kumar M. K., Sathya L., Ibem H. K., Ramachandra Y. L., Akella V. 2006. Single chain antibody fragments transcriptionally fused to ALP specific against Ralstonia solanacearum virulent and avirulent strains to detect field samples of infected plants. In: International Bacterial Wilt Symposium. York, England, 17-20 July 2006, 34 pp.
- Danks C., Barker I. 2000. On-site detection of plant pathogens using lateral flow devices. Bull. OEPP/EPPO Bull. 30: 421-426.
- Elphinstone J. G., Stanford H. M., Stead D. E. 1998. Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in potato tubers, Solanum dulcamara, and associated irrigation water. p. 133-139. In: "Bacterial Wilt Disease: Molecular and Ecological Aspects" (P. Prior, C. Allen, J. Elphinstone, eds.). Springer, 461 pp.
- Hayward A. C. 1964. Characteristics of Pseudomonas solanacearum. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 27: 265-271.
- Hayward A. C. 1991. Biology and epidemiology of bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 29: 65-87.
- Hayward A. C. 2000. Ralstonia solanacearum. Encyclopedia of microbiology. Academic Press, London (GB) 4 (2): 32-42.
- He L. Y., Sequiera L., Kelman A. 1983. Characteristics of strains of Pseudomonas solanacearum from China. Plant Dis. 67: 1357-1361.
- Kelman A. 1954. The relationship of pathogenicity of Pseudomonas solanacearum to colony appearance in tetrazolium medium. Phytopathology 44: 693-695.
- Khan A. N. A. 1974. Studies on Pseudomonas solanacearum (E. F. Smith) causing wilt of brinjal, potato and tomato in Mysore state. Mysore J. Agric. Sci. 8: 478-479.
- Priou S., Gutarra L., Fernandez H., Aley P. 1999. Highly sensitive detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in latently infected potato tubers by post enrichment ELISA on nitrocellulose membrane. Bull. EPPO/OEPP Bull. 29: 117-125.
- Schaad N. W. 1992. Laboratory Guide for the Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. 2nd ed. APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA, 138 pp.
- Seal S. E., Jackson L. A., Young J. P. W., Daniels M. J. 1993. Differentiation of P. solanacearum, P. syzygii, P. pickettii and the blood disease bacterium by partial 16S RNA sequencing, construction of oligonucleotide primers for sensitive detection by polymerase chain reaction. J. General Microbiol. 139 (7): 1587-1594.
- Shekhawat G. S., Singh R., Kishore V. 1978. Distribution of bacterial wilt and races and biotypes of the pathogen in India. J. Indian Potato Association 5: 155-165.
- Smith E. F. 1896. A bacterial disease of the tomato, egg plant and Irish potato (Bacillus solanacearum nov. Sp.), U. S. Dept. Agric. Div. Veg., Physiol. Path. Bull. 12: 1-28.
- Sunaina V., Kishore V., Shekhawat G. S., Kumar M. 1997. Control of bacterial wilt of potato in naturally infested soils by bacterial antagonists. J. Plant Dis. Protocol 104: 362-369.
- Wang J. F., Berk T. 1997. Sources of resistance to Bacterial Wilt in Capsicum annuum. ACIAR Bacterial Wilt Newsletter 14: 3-4.
- Wenneker M., Verdel M. S. W., Van Beuningen A. R., Derks J. H. J., Janse J. D. 1999. Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum race 3 (biovar 2) in surface water and natural weed hosts: first report on stinging nettle (Urticadioica). Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 105: 307-315.
- Woese C. R. 1987. Bacterial evolution. Microbiol. Rev. 51 (2): 221-271.
- Yabuuchi E., Kosako Yano I., Hotta H., Nishiuchi Y. 1995. Transfer of two Burkholderia and an Alcaligenes species to Ralstonia Gen. Nov. Proposal of Ralstonia pickettii (Ralston, Palleroni and Doudoroff 1973) Comb. Nov. Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith 1896) Comb. Nov. and Ralstonia eutropha (Davis 1969) Comb. Nov, Microbiol. Immunol. 39 (11): 897-904.
Rekord w opracowaniu