Yield and quality of durum wheat grain in different tillage systems
Treść / Zawartość
The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of different tillage systems on the yield, quality and mineral composition of grain of durum wheat. Three tillage systems were compared in the experiment: 1) conventional (CT), 2) reduced (RT) and 3) herbicide (HT). In the CT system, shallow ploughing and harrowing were performed after the harvest of the previous crop and late autumn ploughing was carried out before winter. In the RT system, double cultivation was performed instead of ploughing, whereas in the HT system the cultivation treatments were replaced by a herbicide containing a.s. glyphosate. In the springtime, a tillage set consisting of a cultivator, string roller and harrow was applied on all plots. Yields of wheat were higher in the years with high precipitation (years 2013-2014) than in the year with low precipitation (2015), as well as in the HT system than in the CT and RT systems. The content of total protein and wet gluten, as well as grain volume weight and grain uniformity were affected more by the study years than by the tillage systems. High sums of precipitation facilitated the accumulation of phytate-P and copper (Cu) in the grain, whereas the precipitation defict increased the content of potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) in grain. The CT system contributed to the accumulation of phytate-P and iron, the RT system favoured the accumulation of calcium and manganese, whereas the HT system stimulated the accumulation of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and copper in durum wheat grain.