The aim of this research was to recognize the importance of cross-border movement for the development of communes located along the eastern border. The research was carried out in two communes: Terespol and Piszczac. The analysis showed that the communes are rural and they are characterized by a low degree of entrepreneurship. High unemployment contributes to the migration of people to urban centres or abroad. Border traffic is an important element of economic life in such regions. Entrepreneurs and traders use a passive trade policy in relation to consumers across the eastern border. Such policy raises concerns about the further cooperation. Socio-economic development of the communes requires institutional support for small businesses and improvement of professional skills of the unemployed. What is more, taking advantage of natural values to develop tourism and recreation offer and increasing trade and cooperation with companies from the East are equally significant.