Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2016 | 25 | 1 |
Tytuł artykułu

Advantages and disadvantages of healthcare waste treatment and disposal alternatives: Malaysian scenario

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
The generation of a comparatively large amount of potentially infectious and hazardous wastes has increased in healthcare services. Worldwide inappropriate healthcare waste management practices can have a direct and indirect effect of health hazards. This article summarizes a literature review into healthcare waste and presents basic information on characteristics of them generated in healthcare centers. Also, this paper placed emphasis on sustainable treatment of the healthcare waste with case study. Different types of clinical waste include infectious, pathogenic, genotoxic, radioactive, and pharmaceutical materials, plus sharps. The various clinical wastes have to be managed and handled differently. There are several methods of healthcare treatment such as incineration, autoclaving, microwaving, landfilling, and plasma pyrolysis. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. Before selecting the right treatment technology, it is necessary to substantiate the waste volume and its category. Currently, healthcare waste is generally treated by incineration technology and the incinerated ash is disposed of in Malaysian landfills. There are several constraints on incinerating and landfilling healthcare wastes as such waste can be a major source of dioxin and furan pollution that may pose such health problems as liver failure and cancer. Therefore, other potential methods should be examined as alternatives to incineration and landfilling in order to better manage healthcare waste in Malaysia.
Słowa kluczowe
Opis fizyczny
  • Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 1. LEE B. K., ELLENBECKER M. J., MOURE-ERSASO R. Alternatives for treatment and disposal cost reduction of regulated medical wastes. Waste Manage. 24 (2), 143, 2004.
  • 2. MISRA V., PANDEY S. Hazardous waste, impact on health and environment for development of better waste management strategies in future in India. Environ Int. 31 (3), 417, 2005.
  • 3. DIAZ L., SAVAGE G., EGGERTH L. Alternatives for the treatment and disposal of healthcare wastes in developing countries. Waste Manage. 25 (6), 626, 2005.
  • 4. MARINKOVIC N., VITALE K., HOLCER N. J., DZAKULA A., PAVIC T. Management of hazardous medical waste in Croatia. Waste Manage. 28, 1049, 2008.
  • 5. COKER A., SANGODOYIN A., SRIDHAR M., BOOTH C., OLOMOLAIYE P., HAMMOND F. Medical waste management in Ibadan, Nigeria: Obstacles and prospects. Waste Manage. 29 (2), 804, 2009.
  • 6. SAWALEM M., SELIC E., HERBELL J. D. Hospital waste management in Libya: A case study. Waste Manage. 29 (4), 1370, 2009.
  • 7. PATWARY M. A., O'HARE W. T., STREET G., MAUDOOD ELAHI K., HOSSAIN S. S., SARKER M. H. Quantitative assessment of medical waste generation in the capital city of Bangladesh. Waste Manage. 29 (8), 2392, 2009.
  • 8. HOSSAIN M. S., SANTHANAM A., NIK NORULAINI N. A., OMAR A. K. Clinical solid waste management practices and its impact on human health and environment-A review. Waste Manage. 31 (4), 754, 2011.
  • 9. PREM ANANTH A., PRASHANTHINI V., ISVANATHAN C. Healthcare waste management in Asia. Waste Manage. 30 (1), 154, 2010.
  • 10. KATOCH S. S. Investigations on common treatment technologies for some biomedical wastes. Department of Chemical Engineering Thapar, University of India. India, 2008.
  • 11. DURSUN M., KARSAK E.E., KARADAYI M. A.A fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making framework for evaluating health-care waste disposal alternatives. Expert Syst. Appl. 38 (9), 11453, 2011a.
  • 12. DURSUN M., KARSAK E. E., KARADAYI M. A. Assessment of health-care waste treatment alternatives using fuzzy multi-criteria decision making approaches. Resour. Conserv. Recy. 57, 98, 2011b.
  • 13. LIU H.C., WU J., LI, P. Assessment of health-care waste disposal methods using a VIKOR-based fuzzy multi-criteria decision making method. Waste Manage. 33, (12), 2744, 2013.
  • 14. TSAKONA M., ANAGNOSTOPOULOU E., IDARAKOS E. Hospital waste management and toxicity evaluation: a case study. Waste Manage. 27 (7), 912, 2007.
  • 15. HAMODA H.M., EL-TOMI H.N., BAHMAN Q.Y. Variations in hospital waste quantities and generation rates. J. Environ. Sci. Health., Part A. 40 (2), 467, 2005.
  • 16. CHAERUL M., TANAKA M., SHEKDAR A.V. Resolving complexities in healthcare waste management: a goal programming approach. Waste Manage. Res. 26 (3), 217, 2008.
  • 17. CHANDRAPPA R., DAS D.B. Solid waste management, environmental science and engineering, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-28681-0_2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2012.
  • 18. KUO H.W., SHU S.L., WU C.C., LAI J.S. Characteristics of medical waste in Taiwan. Water, Air, Soil Poll. 114 (3-4), 413, 1999.
  • 19. ALTIN S., ALTIN A., ELEVLI B., CERIT, O. Determination of hospital waste composition and disposal methods: a case study. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 12 (2), 251, 2003.
  • 20. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Management of waste from injection activities at the district level. Geneva, 2006.
  • 21. MOHAMED L.F., EBRAHIM S.A., AL-THUKAIR A.A. Hazardous healthcare waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Waste Manage. 29 (8), 2404, 2009.
  • 22. PRÜSS, A., GIROULT, E., RUSHBROOK, P. Teacher's Guide: Management of wastes from health-care activities. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, 1999.
  • 23. PRÜSS A., EMMANUEL J., RUSHBROOK P., ZGHONDI R., STRINGER R., PIEPER U. Safe management of wastes from health-care activities: Second edition. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2013.
  • 24. SALKIN I.F. Conventional and alternative technologies for the treatment of infectious waste. J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manage. 5 (1), 0009, 2003.
  • 25. NEMATHAGA F., MARINGA S., CHIMUKA L. Hospital solid waste management practices in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A case study of two hospitals. Waste Manage. 28 (7), 1236, 2008.
  • 26. PARK H., LEE K., KIM M., LEE J., SEONG S.Y., KO G. Detection and hazard assessment of pathogenic microorganisms in medical wastes. J. Environ. Sci. Health., Part A. 44 (10), 995, 2009.
  • 27. EL HAGGAR S. Sustainable industrial design and waste management: cradle-to-cradle for sustainable development. Elsevier Academic Press, USA, 2010.
  • 28. LEE K. H., CHO S.H., HONG Y.C., LEE K.H., KWAN H. J., CHOI I., KANG, D. Urinary PAH metabolites influenced by genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1 in male hospital incinerator workers. J. Occup. Health. 45 (3), 168, 2003.
  • 29. LEE W.J., LIOW M.C., HSIEH L.T., CHEN T.J.H., TSAI P.J. Impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from medical waste incinerators on the urban atmosphere. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 53 (9), 1149, 2003b.
  • 30. JANG Y.C., LEE C., YOON O.S., KIM H. Medical waste management in Korea. J. Environ. Manage. 80 (2), 107, 2006.
  • 31. SINGH S., PRAKASH V. Toxic environmental releases from medical waste incineration: a review. Environ. Monit. Assess. 132 (1-3), 67, 2007.
  • 32. MOCHUNGONG P.I.K. Environmental exposure and public health impacts of poor clinical waste treatment and disposal in Cameroon. Institute for Public Health, University of Southern Denmark. Denmark, 2011.
  • 33. KATOCH S.S. Biomedical waste classification and prevailing management strategies. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management 5-7, 2007.
  • 34. ARMSTRONG B.A., REINHARDT P.A. Managing laboratory biomedical waste using a large on-site autoclave -shredder. J. Chem. Health Safety. 17 (6), 33, 2010.
  • 35. ECOACCESS ENVIRONMENTAL LICENSES AND PERMITS. Clinical or related waste treatment and disposal. Clinical_or_related_waste_treatment_and_disposal.pdf. 2006.
  • 36. HARBEC S. The uptake of sustainable waste management: the case of electronic medical equipment, Department of Mathematics and Iindustrial Engineering, Polytechnic School of Montreal. Canada, 2009.
  • 37. DEVINE A., et al. Testing the efficacy of a combination of microwave and steam heat for log reduction of the microbial load following a simulated poultry mass mortality event. Appl. Biosaf. 12 (2):79, 2007.
  • 38. ÖZKAN A. Evaluation of healthcare waste treatment/ disposal alternatives by using multi-criteria decision-making techniques. Waste Manage. Res. 31 (2), 141, 2013.
  • 39. BUT T.E., LOCKLEY E., ODUYEMI K.O.K. Risk assessment of landfill disposal site-state of art. Waste Manage. 28, 952, 2008.
  • 40. NARAYANA T. Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources? Waste Manage. 29 (3), 1163, 2009.
  • 41. INABA T., IWAO T. Treatment of waste by DC arc discharge plasmas. IEEE. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 7 (5), 684, 2000.
  • 42. TANKSALI A. S. Management of Bio Medical waste. Int. J. ChemTech. Res. 5 (3), 1213, 2013.
  • 43. VYAS D. S., DAVE U. B., PAREKH H. B. Plasma pyrolysis: an innovative treatment to solid waste of plastic material. In: National conference on recent trends in engineering & technology, NCRTET, Gujarat, 2011.
  • 44. PARK H.S., JEONG J.W. Recent trends on disposal technologies of medical waste. J. Korea. Soc. Waste. Manag. 18 (1), 18, 2001.
  • 45. HYLAND R.G., DRUM D.A., BULLEY M. Disposal medical wastes. In: 87th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., Paper No. 94-RP-123B.02, Cincinnati, OH, 19-24 June, 1994.
  • 46. HCWH (HEALTHCARE WITHOUT HARM). Non-incineration medical waste treatment technologies in Europe: A resource for hospital administrators, facility managers. Health Care Professionals, Environmental Advocates, and Community Members, Washington, DC, USA (accessed online at nonincineration), 2004.
  • 47. USAID (U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT). Environmental guidelines for small-scale activities in Africa (EGSSAA), Chapter 15: Solid waste: generation, handling, treatment and disposal. (Accessed online at 2009.
  • 48. NEMA S.K., GANESHPRASAD K.S. Plasma pyrolysis of medical waste. Curr. Sci. 83 (3), 271, 2002.
  • 49. CHEE H.L. Medical tourism in Malaysia: international movement of healthcare consumers and the commodification of healthcare. ARI Working Paper No. 83, 1, 2007. Electronic copy available at:
  • 50. POCOCK N.S., PHUA K.H. Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia. Global Health, 7 (1), 12, 2011.
  • 51. MINISTRY OF HEALTH MALAYSIA (MOH). Healthcare waste status report. Putrajaya: Engineering Services Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia. Malaysia, 2009.
  • 52. OMAR D., NAZLI S.N., KARUPPANNAN S. A. Clinical waste management in district hospitals of Tumpat, Batu Pahat and Taiping. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci. 68, 134, 2012.
  • 53. RAZALI S.S., ISHAK M.B. Clinical waste handling and obstacles in Malaysia. J. Urban Environ. Engng. 4 (2), 47, 2010.
  • 54. IBRAHIM Z.B. Management and disposal of clinical waste (case study: hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) (Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia). Malaysia, 2005.
  • 55. AMBALI A.R., BAKAR A.N., MERICAN F.M. Environmental policy in Malaysia: biomedical waste, strategies and issues. Admin. Sci. 10 (1), 1, 2013.
  • 56. KHANEHZAEI G., ISHAK M.B., MANAF L., ABDULLAH A. Clinical Waste Segregation: Towards Implementation and Obstacles in Malaysian Private Clinics. IOSR J. Environ. Sci. 8 (10), 22, 2014.
  • 57. AZNI I., KATAYON S., RATNASAMY M., JOHARI M. M. N. M. Stabilization and utilization of hospital waste as road and asphalt aggregate. J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manage. 7 (1), 33, 2005.
  • 58. AMBALI A. R., BAKAR A. N. Medical waste management in Malaysia: Policies, strategies and issues. In Humanities, Science and Engineering (CHUSER), 2012 IEEE Colloquium on 672, 2012.
  • 59. TIONG C. S., PUZIAHA.L, KARUPPANNANA. L. Medical waste management in private medical clinics Taiping, Perak. Paper presented at International Conference on Ecological, Environmental and bio-Science ICEEBS'2012), April, 1315, Pattaya, 2012.
  • 60. LIM M. Measuring waste in Malaysia: A neglected approach. J. Asian Behavior. Stud. 1 (1), 41, 2011.
  • 61. MIYAZAKI M., UNE H. Infectious waste management in Japan: A revised regulation and a management process in medical institutions. Waste Manage. 25, 616, 2005.
  • 62. VESILIND P.A., WORRELL W.A., REINHART D.R., VESILIND A. Solid waste engineering: Brooks/Cole Pacific Grove, 2002.
  • 63. BLENKHARN J.A backward step: landfill disposal of clinical wastes. Journal of Hospital Infection. 63 (1), 105, 2006.
  • 64. BLENKHARN J.I. Medical wastes management in the south of Brazil. Waste Manage. 26 (3), 315, 2006.
  • 65. AL-KHATIB I.A., SATO C. Solid health care waste management status at health care centers in the West Bank -Palestinian Territory. Waste Manage. 29 (8), 2398, 2009.
  • 66. ROGERS D.E., BRENT A.C. Small-scale medical waste incinerators-experiences and trials in South Africa. Waste Manage. 26 (11), 1229, 2006.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.