Study on recycling urban wastewater for non-potable uses for water conservation
Treść / Zawartość
This study aims to investigate the feasibility of recycling urban wastewater for non-potable purposes and to reduce potable water usage in the eThekwini Municipal region in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Three different potential users of recycled water were investigated, including residential households, industrial users, and irrigation schemes. For residential users, the water uses for low- and high-income households were investigated. For industrial use, one particular industry was investigated, and for irrigation schemes, three golf courses were investigated. Some of the factors were expected to affect feasibility, such as economic, social, and environmental issues. In this study economic and environmental feasibility were not considered as we were investigating water conservation. The study showed that industrial and irrigation uses are more feasible options for recycled water reuse as compared to residential use due to the low social acceptance of the project.
- 1. CSIR. A CSIR Perspective on water in South Africa. CSIR Report No. CSIR/NRE/PW/IR/2011/0012/A. 2010.
- 2. ILEMOBADE A.A., ADEWUMI J.R., VAN ZYL J.E. Framework for assessing the viability of implementing dual water reticulation systems in South Africa. Water SA. 35 (2), 216, 2008.
- 3. ADEWUMI J.R., ILEMOBADE A.A., VAN ZYL J.E. Treated wastewater reuse in South Africa: Overview, potential and challenges. Resources Conservation and Recycling. 55, 221, 2010.
- 4. KANG D., LANSEY K. Dual Water Distribution Network Design under Triple-Bottom-Line Objectives. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. 138 (2), 162, 2012.
- 5. WOODS G., KANG D., QUINTANAR D., CURLEY E., DAVIS S., LANSEY K., ARNOLD R. Centralized versus Decentralized Wastewater Reclamation in the Houghton Area of Tucson, Arizona. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. 139 (3), 313, 2013.
- 6. RADCLIFFE J. Evolution of water recycling in Australian cities since 2003. Water Science and Technology. 62 (4), 792, 2010.
- 7. ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY. EThekwini Draft Water Services Development Plan 2011. Durban, South Africa. 138, 2011.
- 8. PILLAY S. An environmental lifecycle assessment of the provision of recycled water in Durban. Ph.D. Thesis. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. 237, 2007.
- 9. DU PISANI P.L. Direct reclamation of potable water at Windhoek's Goreangab reclamation plant. Desalination. 188, 79, 2006.
- 10. JACOBS H. E., GEUSTYN L.C., LOUBSER B.F., VAN DER MERWE B. Estimating residential water demand in Southern Africa. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineers. 46 (4), 2, 2004.
- 11. N DUBE V. Investigating the feasibility of urban wastewater recycling for non-potable uses in the ethekwini region and the consequent savings in potable water, BSc (Eng) dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. 59, 2012.