Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2006 | 08 | 1 |
Tytuł artykułu

Olfactory discrimination ability of the short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
We carried out a set of experiments on a megachiropteran bat Cynopterus sphinx to examine its olfactory discrimination ability to a variety of food odor substances. We used seven undiluted odorants such as isoamyl acetate, ethyl acetate, hexanol, benzaldehyde, limonene, pinene, and dimethyl disulfide for odor discrimination experiments. These volatile substances are present at various quantities in the natural food (fruits and nectar) of C. sphinx. Equal amount (200 μl) of seven odor substances kept individually but simultaneously in seven of eight specimen tubes which were equipped in a radially and horizontally arranged experimental set-up. In addition to the odorants, about 5 mm pieces of any one of the fruits such as guava, papaya and sapota were offered in cups as reward to the bats. The behavior of bats was observed visually and number of bat-visits to the odorants, and to the scentless control was continuously recorded in an event recorder. The mean number of approaches made by the bats differed across the odorants and scentless control (χ2 = 34.94, d.f. = 7, P < 0.001). Bats made relatively more number of visits to the odorants compared to the control, except hexanol and dimethyl disulfide. Among the odor substances, bat-visits and preference factor showed a gradational pattern with relatively maximum to ethyl acetate and minimum to dimethyl disulfide. The pattern of bat-visits was bimodal to benzaldehyde and dimethyl disulfide, whereas it was unimodal to all the remaining five odorants. Our study suggests that C. sphinx is able to discriminate different odor substances in a complex olfactory environment.
Słowa kluczowe
Opis fizyczny
  • Department of Applied Animal Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Vidya Vihar, Rae Bareli Road, Lucknow (UP), 226 025, India
  • Acharya, K. K„ A. Roy, and A. Krishna. 1998. Relative role of olfactory cues and certain non-olfactory factors in foraging of fruit-eating bats. Behavioural Processes, 44: 59-64.
  • Bates, P. J. J., and D. L. Harrison. 1997. Bats of the Indian subcontinent. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks, U.K., 258 pp.
  • Bestmann, H. J., L. Winkler, and O. von Hellersen. 1997. Headspace analysis of flower scent constituents of bat-pollinated plants. Phytochemistry, 46: 1169-1172.
  • Bhat, H. R. 1994. Observations on the food and feeding behaviour of Cynopterus sphinx Vahl (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) at Pune, India. Mammalia, 58: 363-370.
  • Elangovan, V., and G. Marimuthu. 2001. Comparative analysis on food, energy and nitrogen intake of a megachiropteran bat, Cynopterus shinx. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (India), 7 IB: 115-120.
  • Elangovan, V., G. Marimuthu, and T. H. Kunz. 1999. Temporal patterns of individual and group foraging behaviour in the short-nosed fruit bat. Cynopterus sphinx in South India. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 15: 681-687.
  • Elangovan, V., G. Marimuthu, and T. H. Kunz. 2000. Nectar feeding behaviour of the short- nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx. Acta Chiropterologica, 2: 1-5.
  • Elangovan, V., G. Marimuthu, and T. H. Kunz. 2001. Temporal patterns of resource use by the short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae). Journal of Mammalogy, 82: 161-165.
  • Gentry, A. H. 1974. Flowering phenology and diversity in tropical Bignoniaceae. Biotropica, 6: 64-68.
  • Gibson, A. C. 2001. Bats and their flowers, http:// ter/Volume4number4/Batsandtheirflowers.html.
  • Gribel, R., P. E. Gibbs, and A. L. Queiroz. 1999. Flowering phenology and pollination biology of Ceiba pentandra (Bombacaceae) in Central Amazonia. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 15: 247-263.
  • Helversen, O. von., L. Winkler, and H. J. Bestmann. 2000. Sulphur-containing 'perfumes' attract flower-visiting bats. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 186A: 143-153.
  • Kaiser, R„ and L. Tollsten. 1995. An introduction to the scent of cacti. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 10: 153-164.
  • Kalko, E. K. V., and M. M. Condon. 1998. Echolocation, olfaction and fruit display: how bats find fruit of flagellichorus cucurbits. Functional Ecology, 12: 364-372.
  • Kalko, E. K.. V., E. A. Herre, and C. O. Handley, Jr. 1996. Relation of fig fruit characteristics to fruiteating bats in the New and Old World tropics. Journal of Biogeography, 23: 565-576.
  • Knudsen, J. T., and L. Tollsten. 1995. Floral scent in bat-pollinated plants: a case of convergent evolution. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 119: 45-57.
  • Knudsen, J. T., L. Tollsten, and G. Bergström. 1993. Floral scents — a checklist of volatile compounds isolated by head-space techniques. Phytochemistry, 33: 253-280.
  • Kulzer, E. 1958. Untersuchungen zur Biologie von Flughunden der Gattung Rousettus. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere, 47: 374-402.
  • Laska, M. 1990a. Olfactory discrimination ability in short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata (Chiroptera: Phyllostomatidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 16: 3291-3299.
  • Laska, M. 1990b. Olfactory sensitivity to food odor components in the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata (Phyllostomatidae, Chiroptera). Journal of Comparative Physiology, 166A: 395-399.
  • Lemke, T. O. 1984. Foraging ecology of the long- nosed bat, Gtossophaga soricina, with respect to resource availability. Ecology, 65: 538-548.
  • Luft, S., E. Curio, and B. Tacud. 2003. The use of olfaction in the foraging behaviour of the goldenmantled flying fox, Pteropus pumilus, and the greater musky fruit bat, Ptenochirus jagori (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae). Naturwissenschaften, 90: 84-87.
  • Nelson, J. E. 1965. Behaviour of Australian Pteropodidae (Megachiroptera). Animal Behaviour, 13: 544-557.
  • Oldfield, A. C., C. R. Tidemann, and A. P. Robinson. 1993. Olfactory discrimination in the Australian flying-foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus and P. scapulatus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). Bat Research News, 34: 33.
  • Pettersson, S., and J. T. Knudsen. 2001. Floral scent and nectar production in Parkia biglobosa Jacq. (Leguminosae: Mimosidae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 135: 97-106.
  • Rieger, J. F., and E. M. Jakob. 1988. The use of olfaction in food location by frugivorous bats. Biotropica, 20: 164-166.
  • Safi, K„ and D. K. N. Dechmann. 2005. Adaptation of brain regions to habitat complexity: a comparative analysis in bats (Chiroptera). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 272B: 179-186.
  • Singaravelan, N., and G. Marimuthu. 2004. Nectar feeding and pollen carrying from Ceiba pentandra by pteropodid bats. Journal of Mammalogy, 85: 1-7.
  • Stensmyr, M. C., M. C. Larsson, S. Bice, and B. S. Hansson. 2001. Detection of fruit and floweremitted volatiles by olfactory receptor neurons in the polyphagous fruit chafer Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera: Cetoniinae). Journal of Comparative Physiology, 187A: 509-519.
  • Stevenson, T. 2003. Aromas and flavours,
  • Suthers, R. A. 1970. Vision, olfaction, and taste. Pp. 265-309, in Biology of bats. Volume 2 (W. A. Wimsatt, ed.). Academic Press, New York, 477 pp.
  • Thies, W., E. K. V. Kalko, and H.-U. Schnitzler. 1998. The roles of echolocation and olfaction in two Neotropical fruit-eating bats, Carollia perspicillata and C. castanea, feeding on Piper. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 42: 397-409.
  • Varassin, I. G., J. R. Trigo, and M. Sazima. 2001. The role of nectar production, flower pigments and odor in the pollination of four species of Passiflora (Passifloraceae) in south-eastern Brazil. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 136: 139-152.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.