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2017 | 161 | 08 |
Tytuł artykułu

Wpływ wilgotności i gatunku drewna opałowego na przebieg procesu łupania

Warianty tytułu
EN
Effect of humidity and species of firewood on the course of cleaving
Języki publikacji
PL
Abstrakty
EN
Traditional firewood is still the most popular type of solid fuel. This is mainly because of the availability of raw materials and simple production process, which involves mostly just sawing and cleaving. Cleaving increases the surface of the wood through which water evaporates, which in turn speeds up the drying. Dry wood has a higher calorific value and its combustion releases less harmful carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Wood cleaving process can be divided into three phases that lasts from the introduction of the wedge till the appearance of a crack (phase I), from the appearance of the crack till the stop of the slots (phase II) and then until the piece of the wood is completely cleaved (phase III). Although it is a conditional phase and it does not always occur in the case of the firewood species popular in Poland, the last phase takes the longest and has the greatest impact on the cleaving performance. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of wood and its moisture content on the duration of the phase III during the trial cleaving. The tested samples comprised of five popular in Poland species: hornbeam, beech, birch, alder and ash. The cleaving were carried out immediately after cutting and sawing the timber and after 3−month−long period of natural drying. For hornbeam, beech and alder humidity does not affect the hollow wedge in wood at the time of rupture. The duration of phase III was significantly longer than duration of phases I and II for each species independently of humidity. Significant dependence was observed for depression wedge as a function of humidity obtained in phase I and II for silver birch, and in phase III for ash.
Wydawca
-
Czasopismo
Rocznik
Tom
161
Numer
08
Opis fizyczny
s.685-692,rys.,bibliogr.
Twórcy
autor
  • Katedra Maszyn Rolniczych i Leśnych, Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie, ul.Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warszawa
autor
  • Katedra Maszyn Rolniczych i Leśnych, Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie, ul.Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warszawa
  • Katedra Maszyn Rolniczych i Leśnych, Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie, ul.Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warszawa
  • Katedra Maszyn Rolniczych i Leśnych, Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie, ul.Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warszawa
Bibliografia
  • Björheden R. 1989. Traktordriven vedprocessor Pilke 60. Department of Operational Efficiency, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Garpenberg. 9-18.
  • Caserini S., Fraccaroli A., Monguzzi A., Moretti M., Angelino E. 2008. Stima dei consumi di legna da ardere ed uso domestico in Italia. Ricerca commissionata da APAT e ARPA Lombardia. Rapporto finale.
  • Elyakime B., Cabanettes A. 2013. Financial evaluation of two models for energy production in small French farm forests. Renewable Energy 57: 51-56.
  • Halder P., Pietarinen J., Havu-Nuutinen S., Pelkonen P. 2010. Young citizens’ knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy and future policy implications. Energy Policy 38: 3058-3066.
  • Henriksen T. C., Illerup J. B., Nielsen O.-K. 2006. Dioxin air emission inventory 1990-2004. National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde. NERI Tech. Rep. 602.
  • Jaeaeskelaeinen M. 1995. On the preparation of fire-wood splitting machines equipped with feeder devices. Work Efficiency Inst. Helsinki 27 (4).
  • Jagusiak J., Więsik J. 1991. Badania oporów łupania drewna nożami klinowymi. Maszyny i Ciągniki Rolnicze i Leśne 8: 7-9.
  • Kärhä K., Jouhiaho A. 2009. Producing chopped firewood with firewood processors. Biomass and Bioenergy 33: 1300-1309.
  • Lindroos O. 2008. The effects of increased mechanization on time consumption in small-scale firewood processing. Silva Fennica 42: 791-805.
  • Lindroos O. 2011. Residential use of firewood in Northern Sweden and its influence on forest biomass resources. Biomass and Bioenergy 35: 385-390.
  • Manzone M., Spinelli R. 2014. Efficiency of small-scale firewood processing operations in Southern Europe. Fuel Processing Technology 122: 58-63.
  • Ryynänen S., Turkkila K. 1982. The chopping machines for firewood billets and long logs. TTS Institute. Forestry Bulletin 357: 1-6.
  • Sĺdan fyrer du fornuftigt i din brćndeovn. 2010. Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Environment, Copenhagen. http://www.mst.dk/Borger/Temaer/Hjemmet/braendeovne/
  • Stanzl-Tschegg S. E., Tan D-M., Tschegg E. K. 1995. New splitting method for wood fracture characterization. Wood Science and Technology 29 (1): 31-50.
  • Swartström J. 1986. Equipment for preparation of fuelwood – productivity and work environment. Research note 65. Department of Work Efficiency, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Garpenberg.
  • Trřmborg E., Bolkesjř T., Solberg B. 2008. Biomass market and trade in Norway: status and future prospects. Biomass and Bioenergy 32: 660-671.
  • Więsik J. [red.], Aniszewska M., Brzózko J., Gendek A., Maciak A., Skarżyński J., Wójcik K., Zychowicz W. 2015. Urządzenia techniczne w produkcji leśnej. Tom 2. Maszyny i urządzenia do pozyskiwania i transportu drewna. Wydawnictwo SGGW, Warszawa.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
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