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2013 | 35 | 08 |
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Investigation of the salt tolerance of new Polish bread and durum wheat cultivars

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In some regions of the world, low annual precipitation necessitates irrigation of crop plants which usually leads to soil salinity. Due to climatic changes this effect is also expected in the countries of Central Europe, and so in Poland. The aim of the study was (1) to compare tolerance to salt stress of Polish Triticum aestivum cvs. ‘Bogatka’ and ‘Banderola’ with T. durum cv. ‘Komnata’ and breeding line 121, and (2) to indicate the physiological parameter/parameters most suitable for such comparison. The investigation was performed in two experiments. In the first one, the germination ability of caryopses and coleoptiles’ growth were estimated at 0–250 mM of NaCl. The second experiment was conducted on plants grown in a glasshouse in saline soil at 0–150 mM of NaCl for 6 weeks. Salt tolerance was evaluated on the basis of following parameters: chlorophyll fluorescence, net photosynthesis rate (PN), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), cell membrane permeability (EL), proline content, fresh weight (FW), dry weight (DW), and relative water content (RWC). Highest germination of caryopses of durum cultivars was recorded at all the salinity levels; however, their coleoptiles were shorter than coleoptiles of bread wheat cultivars. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that applied salt doses did not disturb the light phase of photosynthesis in all cultivars under study. Plants of durum wheat showed the higher dissipation of energy excess at the level of the antenna chlorophyll (DIo/CSm) under salinity as compared to plants of bread wheat. Both ‘Komnata’ and line 121 showed stronger PN reduction as an effect of salinity. A decline of PN was closely connected with a decrease in gs. The PN correlated with a decrease in DW in all studied cultivars except ‘Bogatka’. Control plants of ‘Komnata’ and line 121 were characterized by higher EL and proline level than bread wheat cultivars. An increasing cell membrane permeability correlated with a decrease of RWC in ‘Banderola’ and ‘Komnata’. The content of proline under the increasing salinity correlated with changes of RWC in ‘Banderola’, ‘Komnata’ and line 121, which indicate protectoral role of proline against dehydration of tissue. Dry weight and RWC seem to be the parameters most useful in the salt-tolerance estimation of wheat plants. Taking into account the studied parameters ‘Banderola’ could be recognized as more salt tolerant, the degree of salinity tolerance of ‘Bogatka’ is the same as line 121, while ‘Komnata’ seems to be the most salt sensitive. The salt tolerance of T. aestivum and T. durum depends on the cultivar rather than the wheat species.
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  • Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture, Podłu_zna 3, 30-239 Krako´w, Poland
  • F. Go´rski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Krako´w, Poland
  • F. Go´rski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Krako´w, Poland
  • Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture, Podłu_zna 3, 30-239 Krako´w, Poland
  • Department of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture, Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Krako´w, Poland
  • Plant Breeding Smolice, Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute Group, 63-740 Kobylin, Smolice 146, Poland
  • F. Go´rski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Krako´w, Poland
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