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2014 | 36 | 03 |

Tytuł artykułu

Physio-morphological and structural changes in common bermudagrass and Kentucky bluegrass during salt stress


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Environmental pollution has increased human attention toward developing green spaces every day. One of the most important goals in developing green spaces is to create beautiful and pleasant scenes and consequently creating mental relaxation; turfs are the most important plants for this purpose. One factor which affects the growth of plants in arid and semi-arid regions is the salinity of the water and soil; therefore, using some types of turfgrasses which are tolerant to salinity is a key factor for culturing them more in the city landscapes in such regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the physio-morphological and structural changes in common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers., as more tolerant species) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., as less tolerant species) under salt stress condition. The salt stress treatments were applied by seven concentrations of NaCl + CaCl₂ (1:1 proportion based on the final EC) including: 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5 and 15.0 dS m⁻¹. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangements, each treatment with four replications. Data were analyzed and means were compared using LSD test at 5 % level. Results showed that with increasing salinity levels Kentucky bluegrass started to decrease in visual quality at 2.5 dS m⁻¹, but bermudagrass’ visual quality was still acceptable at 5.0 dS m⁻¹. Furthermore, increasing the salinity level caused a reduction in the following indices in both species: shoot height, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight, leaf area, photosynthetic rate, total chlorophyll, and starch level. However, the reducing sugar levels and indices of proline, and catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes had shown an increasing trend while salinity increased. However, reducing sugar levels, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities decreased at salinity levels higher than 10 dS m⁻¹. Structural studies showed that bermudagrass, with help of bulliform cells, could prevent water loss and tolerate the higher salinity levels. Based on these results, it can be concluded that under the no salinity condition Kentucky bluegrass has more folded leaves than common bermudagrass, however, bermudagrass is more tolerant because of thicker epidermis. Under high salinity conditions, bermudagrass kept their leaves folded, whereas the leaf structure was drastically damaged in bluegrass and no folded leaf was seen at 15 dS m⁻¹. Further ultrastructural studies are needed to clarify more the changes occurring in leaves under salinity stress condition.

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Opis fizyczny



  • Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
  • Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


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