Why do we have a caudate nucleus?
Treść / Zawartość
In order to understand the physiological role of the caudate nucleus, we combine here our laboratory data on cats with reports of patients with selective damage to this nucleus. Cats with bilateral removal of the caudate nuclei showed a stereotyped behavior consisting of persistently approaching and then following a person, another cat, or any object, and attempting to contact the target. Simultaneously, the animals exhibited a friendly disposition and persistent docility together with purring and forelimbs treading/kneading. The magnitude and duration of this behavior was proportional to the extent of the removal reaching a maximum after ablations of 65% or more of the caudate tissue. These cats were hyperactive but they had lost the feline elegance of movements. Additional features of acaudate cats were: (1) postural and accuracy deficits (plus perseveration) in paw usage tasks including bar pressing for food reward; (2) cognitive and perceptual impairments on a T-maze battery of tasks and on the bar pressing tasks; (3) blockage or blunting of the species-specific behavioral response to a single injection of morphine; Unilateral caudate nucleus removal did not produce global behavioral effects, but only deficit in the contralateral paw contact placing reaction and paw usage/bar pressing. Moreover and surprisingly, we found hypertrophy of the ipsilateral caudate nucleus following prenatal focal neocortical removal. The findings in human were also behavioral (not neurological) and also occurred with unilateral caudate damage. The main manifestations consisted of loss of drive (apathy), obsessive-compulsive behavior, cognitive deficits, stimulus-bound perseverative behavior, and hyperactivity. Based on all of the above data we propose that the specific function of the caudate nucleus is to control approach-attachment behavior, ranging from plain approach to a target, to romantic love. This putative function would account well for the caudate involvement in the pathophysiology of a number of clinical syndromes that we mention, all of which compromise approach-attachment- affect behaviors. In addition we conclude that the caudate nucleus contributes importantly to body and limbs posture as well as to the accuracy and speed of directed movements.
- Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Department of Neurobiology, UCLA Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center, Brain Research Institute, The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
- Aron A, Fisher H, Mashek DB, Strong, Li H, Brown LL (2005) Reward, motivation and emontion systems associated with early stage intense romantic love. J Neurophysio 94: 327-337.
- Bard P (1933) Studies on the cerebral cortex. Arch Neurol. Psychiat 30: 50-74.
- Beckman H, Lauer M (1997) The human striatum in schizophrenia. II. Increased number of striatal neurons in schizophrenics. Psychiat. Res. Neuroimag 68: 99-109.
- Bhatia KP, Marsden CD (1994) The behavioral and motor consequences of focal lesions of the basal ganglia in man. Brain 117: 859-876.
- Burgess JW, Villablanca JR (2007) Ontogenesis of morphine-induced behavior in the cat. Brain Res 1134: 53-61.
- Canavero S, Fontanella M (1998) Behavioral-attentional syndrome following bilateral caudate head ischemia. J Neurol 2415: 322-324.
- Castellanos FX, Giedd JN, Ekburg P, Marsh WL, Vaituzis AC, Kaysen D, Hamburger SD, Rapoport JI (1994) Quantitative morphology of the causdate nucleus in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiat 151: 1791-1796.
- Denny-Brown D, Yanagisawa N (1976) The role of the basal ganglia in the initiation of movement. Res Pub Assn Neurol 55: 105-140.
- Harik SL, Morris PL (1973) The effects of lesions in the head of the caudate nucleus on spontaneous and L_DOPA induced activity in the cat. Brain Res 82: 279-285.
- Haznedar MM, Buchsbaum MS, Hazlett EA, LiCalzi EM, Cartwright C, Hollander E (2006) Volumetric analysis and tridimensional glucose metabolic mapping of the striatum and pallicdum in patients with autism spectrum disorders Am J Psychiat 163: 1252-1263.
- Heckers S, Heinsen H, Heisen Y, Beckman H (1991) Cortex, basal ganglia, and white matter in schizophrenia: a volumetric postmortem study. Biol Psychiatry 29: 556-566.
- Hokfelt T, Ungerstedt U (1969) Electron and fluoroscopic microscopical studies of the nucleus caudatus putamen of the rat after unilateral lesions of the ascending nigral-neostri- atal dopamine neurons. Acta Phsyiol Scand 76: 415-426.
- Jernnigan TL, Zisook, S, Heaton RK, Moranville JT, Hesselink JR. Braff DL (1991) Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in lenticular nuclei and cerebral cortex in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48: 881-890.
- Levine MS, Hull CD, Buchwald NA, Villablanca JR (1978) Effects of caudate nucleus or frontal cortical ablations in kittens: motor activity and visual discrimination performance in neonatal and juvenile kittens. Exp Neurol 62: 555-569.
- Liles SL, Davis GD (1969) Athetoid and choreiform hyper- kinesia produced by caudate lesions in the cat. Science 164: 195-197.
- Loopuijt L, Hovda DA, Villablanca JR, Chugani H (1998) Difference in D2 dopamine receptors binding in the neo- striatum of cats hemineodecorticated neonatally or in adulthood. Dev Brain Res 107: 113-122.
- Loopuijt LD, Villablanca JR (1993) Increase in size of the caudate nucleus in the cat after a prenatal neocortical lesion. Dev Brain Res 71: 59-68.
- Loopuijt LD, Villablanca JR (1997) Volume of the putamen in cats with fetal or postnatal unilateral neocortical lesions. Dev Brain Dysfunct 10: 133-141.
- Loopuijt LD, Villablanca JR, Huang E, Mancuso S, Hovda DA (1997) The effects of neocortical lesions in the number of cells of the neonatal or adult feline caudate nucleus: comparisons to fetal lesions. Neuroscience 77: 403-418.
- Luxenber JS, Swedo SE, Flament MF, Friedland R, Rapoport J, Rapoport S (1998) Neuroanatomical abnormalities in obsessive compulsive disorder detected with cuantitative x-ray computed tomography. Am J Psychiat 145: 1089-1093.
- Mendez MF, Adams NL, Skoog Lewandowsky K (1989) Neurobehavioral changes associated with caudate lesions. Neurol 39: 349-354.
- Mettler FA, Mettler CC (1942) The effects of striatal injury. Brain 65: 242-255.
- Narumoto J, Matsushima M, Oka S, Shimizu H, Kooguchi Y, Kitabashashi Y, Kunizawa M, Ueda H, Fukui K (2005) Neurobehavioral changes associated with bilateral caudate nucleus infarction. Psychiatr Clin Neuroscie 59: 109-110.
- Olmstead CE, Villablanca JR (1979) Effects of caudate nuclei or frontal cortical ablations in kittens: paw usage. Exp Neurol 63: 559-572.
- Olmstead CE, Villablanca JR (1980) Effects of caudate or frontal cortical ablations in cats and kittens: passive avoidance. Exp Neurol 68: 335-345.
- Olmstead CE, Villablanca JR, Marcus RJ, Avery DL (1976) Effects of caudate nuclei or frontal cortical ablation in cats. IV, Bar pressing, maze learning and performance. Exp Neurol 53: 670-693.
- Olmstead CE, Villablanca JR, Stabenfeldt GH (1982) Effects of caudate or frontal cortical ablations in cats: testosterone and 17-b estradiol levels. Exp Neurol 75: 149-157.
- Olson S (2004) Making sense of Tourette's. Science 305: 1390-1392.
- Peterson B, Riddle MA, Cohen DJ, Katz LD, Smith JC, Harding MT, Leckman JF (1993) Reduced basal ganglia volumes in Tourrete's syndrome using three-dimensional reconstruction techniques from magnetic resonance imaging. Neurol 43: 941-949.
- Richfield EK, Twyman R, Berents S (1987) Neurological syndrome following bilateral damage of the head of the caudate nucleus. Ann Neurol 22: 768-771.
- Robinson D, HouweiW, Munne RA, Manzar A, Ma J, Alvir J, Lerner G, Koreen A, Cole K, Bogerts B (1995) Reduced caudate nucleus volume in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52: 393-398.
- Sanders GT, McNeill ME, Murphy ML, Bragunier DL, Metz MC (1975) The effects of rostral caudate lesions on motor behavior in the cat. Soc Neurosci Abstr 8: 58.
- Scarone S, Colombo C, Livian S, Abbruzzese M, Ronchi P, Locatelli M, Scotti G, Smeraldi E (1992) Increased right caudate nucleus size in obsessive-compulsive disorder: detection with magnetic resonance imaging. Psychiatry Res Neuroimag 45: 115-121.
- Snider RS, Niemer WT (1961) A Stereotaxic Atlas of the Cat Brain. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
- Villablanca JR (2004) Counterpointing the functional role of the forebrain and of the brain stem in the control of the sleep-waking system. J Sleep Res 13: 179-208.
- Villablanca JR, Hovda DA, Jackson GF, Gayek R (1993) Neurological and behavioral effects of a unilateral frontal; cortical lesion in fetal kittens: I. Brain morphology, movements, posture and sensorimotor tests. Behav Brain Res. 57: 63-77.
- Villablanca J, Marcus RJ, Olmstead CE (1976a) Effects of caudate nuclei or frontal cortical ablation in cats. I. Neurology and gross behavior. Exp Neurol 52: 389-420.
- Villablanca J, Marcus RJ, Olmstead CE (1976b) Effects of caudate nuclei or frontal cortical ablations in cats: II. Sleep-wakefulness, EEG and motor activity. Exp Neurol 53: 31-50.
- Villablanca J, Marcus RJ, Olmstead CE, Avery DL (1976c) Effects of caudate nuclei or frontal cortical ablations in cats: III Recovery of limb placing reactions including observations in hemispherectomized animals. Exp Neurol 53: 289-303.
- Villablanca JR, Olmstead CE (1982) The striatum: A fine tuner of the brain. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 42: 225-297.
- Villablanca JR, Olmstead CE, de Andres I (1978) Effects of caudate nucleus or frontal cortical ablations in kittens. Responsiveness to auditory stimuli and comparisons with adult operated littermates. Exp Neurol 61: 635-649.
- Villablanca JR, Olmstead CE, de Andres I (1982) Morphine: striatal lesions change the behavioral effects of morphine in cats. Brain Res 248:159-166.
- Villablanca JR, Shmancke TD, Crutcher HA, Sung AC, Tavabi C (2000) The growth of the fetal brain from late fetal to adult life. II. A morphometric study of subcortical nuclei. Dev Brain Res 122: 21-33.
Rekord w opracowaniu