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2014 | 65 | 3 |
Tytuł artykułu

Endocrine disruptors in food contact materials; is there a health threat?

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Food Contact Materials (FCMs) are a major source of endocrine disrupting chemical substances (EDCs), thus forming an important part of human exposure to these compounds, to which this article is addressed. The potential impact of such exposures on endocrine function, and thereby health outcomes, requires scientifically valid evidence so that appropriate risk management decisions can be taken to diminish human exposure, particularly in vulnerable population groups like infants and small children. Relevant aspects of exposure assessment are discussed based on testing migration of EDCs from FCMs, together with the different approaches so used. The specific migration testing determines whether limits for defined substances are met. However not all EDCs present in the leachate may be found by these means. In fact, the chances of detecting EDCs in the food simulant (leachate) are improved when it is subjected the relevant biological testing, thus helping to provide improved protection against these chemical substances. Nevertheless, official controls and risk management decisions do not necessarily take such testing into account, as the relevant legislation is based on specific migration limits that may be easily quantified and addressed in the risk management process. Elucidating the link between observed endocrine activity and any toxic effects so arising, is complicated by the complexity of endocrine interrelationships coupled with relatively limited sensitivity of toxicological tests. Any risk assessment implies a rather high uncertainty and should include also any cumulative effects. This review discusses the effects of the EDCs like bisphenol A, phthalates and benzophenone found in FCMs. In addition, the approaches from the USA and EU for systematically evaluating man-made EDCs in the environment are also considered, including appropriate prioritisation criteria.
PL
Materiały do kontaktu z żywnością (ang. food contact materials, FCMs) stanowią istotne źródło substancji zaburzających funkcjonowanie układu hormonalnego określanych jako endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). FCMs mają ważny udział w całkowitym narażeniu człowieka na te substancje. Potencjalny wpływ EDCs na funkcjonowanie układu hormonalnego i skutki zdrowotne wynikające z narażenia na te substancje, dostarczają potwierdzonych dowodów do podejmowania decyzji w ramach zarządzania ryzykiem, zmierzających do zminimalizowania narażenia na te związki, co ma istotne znaczenie, zwłaszcza w przypadku grup populacji szczególnie wrażliwych, takich jak niemowlęta i małe dzieci. Omówiono niektóre aspekty oceny narażenia na podstawie badania migracji EDCs z materiałów do kontaktu z żywnością, w zależności od zastosowania różnych metod badania migracji. Badanie migracji specyficznej umożliwia sprawdzenie czy spełniane są limity migracji ustanowione dla poszczególnych substancji. To podejście stwarza ryzyko, że nie wszystkie migrujące EDCs zostaną wykryte. Zastosowanie odpowiednich testów biologicznych do analizy płynu pomigracyjnego stwarza większe prawdopodobieństwo wykrycia obecności EDCs zapewniając lepszą ochronę konsumenta przed tą grupą związków. Jednakże wyniki takich badań nie zawsze umożliwiają podejmowanie decyzji przez urzędową kontrolę w ramach zarządzania ryzykiem, ponieważ większość przepisów opiera się o limity migracji specyficznej, które łatwo mogą być skwantyfikowane w procesie zarządzania ryzykiem. Wyjaśnienie zależności między zaobserwowanym wpływem na układ hormonalny a wystąpieniem szkodliwego skutku działania napotyka na trudności wynikające z ogromnej złożoności wzajemnych zależności w układzie hormonalnym i ograniczonej czułości testów toksykologicznych. To z kolei implikuje stosunkowo dużą niepewność oceny ryzyka, która powinna także uwzględniać możliwość wystąpienia efektów skumulowanych. Przedyskutowano aspekty związane z bisfenolem A, ftalanami i benzofenonem, jako EDCs występującymi w materiałach do kontaktu z żywnością. Przedstawiono również podejścia USA i UE do systematycznej oceny antropogennych EDCs w środowisku, z uwzględnieniem kryteriów umożliwiających ustalanie priorytetów.
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
65
Numer
3
Opis fizyczny
p.169-177,ref.
Twórcy
  • National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene, 24 Chocimska str., 00-791 Warsaw, Poland
  • Department of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland
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