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Alkaloidy pirolizydynowe zagrożeniem dla zdrowia ludzi i zwierząt

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
EN
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids as a threat to human and animal health
Języki publikacji
PL
Abstrakty
EN
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxins found naturally in a wide variety of plant species that may affect wildlife, livestock and humans. Many of these alkaloids have been shown to be highly toxic, causing hepatic venoocclusive disease (VOD), liver cirrhosis and ultimately death. PAs may also have mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids occur in many plants, mostly belonging to the families Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae originating from different geographical regions. Plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids are usually common weeds occurring world-wide in pastures, grasslands, arable lands and along the borders of rivers and roads. Due to their bitter taste PA-containing plants are generally unpalatable and, as a result, avoided by grazing animals in the field. In preserved and composed feeds this recognition is lost and the toxic PAs may be consumed by livestock. The most undesirable aspect of the poisoning with pyrrolizidine alkaloids is the fact that the disease develops undetected for a long time, which means that at the moment of onset of its symptoms the process of liver damage is so advanced that the animal drops within a few days. Amongst livestock, pigs, cattle and horses are especially susceptible to the toxic effects of the PAs. Humans can be exposed to toxic alkaloids through honey and pollen products. It has also been shown that products like milk, eggs and meat coming from animals fed with feed containing alkaloids may be contaminated with the toxic substances, posing an additional hazard. The subject of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in not studied in most of the countries, which is why it is extremely difficult to evaluate the real danger that alkaloids pose to human and animal health.
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
71
Numer
10
Opis fizyczny
s.602-607,rys.,tab.,bibliogr.
Twórcy
autor
  • Zakład Higieny Pasz, Państwowy Instytut Weterynaryjny - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy w Puławach, Al. Partyzantów 57, 24-100 Puławy
autor
  • Zakład Higieny Pasz, Państwowy Instytut Weterynaryjny - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy w Puławach, Al. Partyzantów 57, 24-100 Puławy
autor
  • Zakład Higieny Pasz, Państwowy Instytut Weterynaryjny - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy w Puławach, Al. Partyzantów 57, 24-100 Puławy
Bibliografia
  • 1. Becerra-Jiminez J., Kuschak M., Roeder E., Wiedenfeld H.: Toxic pyrrolizidinalkaloids as undesired contaminants in food and feed: defradation of the PAs from Senecio jacobaea in silage. Pharmazie 2013, 68, 636-639.
  • 2. Brauchli J., Lüthy J., Zweifel U., Schlatter C.: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Symphytum officinale L. and their percutaneous absorption in rats. Experientia 1982, 38, 1085-1087.
  • 3. Chłopecka M., Dziekan N.: Zatrucia roślinami zawierającymi alkaloidy pirolizydynowe. Bydło 2012, 1, 22-25.
  • 4. Codex Alimentarius Commision: Discussion Paper on Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids. CX/CF 11/5/14, 2011.
  • 5. Crews C., Berthiller F., Krska R.: Update on analytic methods for toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2010, 396, 327-338.
  • 6. Edgar J. A., Colegate S. M., Boppré M., Molyneux R. J.: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food: a spectrum of potential health consequences. Food Addit. Contam. 2011, 28, 308-324.
  • 7. EFSA: Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the European Commission related to pyrrolizidine alkaloids as undesirable substances in animal feed. EFSA J. 2007, 447, 1-51.
  • 8. EFSA: Scientific Opinion on Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed. EFSA J. 2011, 9, 1-134.
  • 9. European Medicines Agency: Public statement on the use of herbal medicinal products containing toxic, unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), 2013, 1-22.
  • 10. Fu P. P., Xia Q., Lin G., Chou M. W.: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids – genotoxicity, metabolism enzymes, metabolic activation, and mechanisms. Drug Metab. Rev. 2004, 36, 1-55.
  • 11. Griffin C. T., Danaher M., Elliott C. T., Kennedy G., Furey A.: Detection of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in commercial honey using liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Food Chem. 2013, 136, 1577-1583.
  • 12. Hoogenboom L. A. P., Mulder P. P. J., Zeilmaker M. J., van den Top H. J., Remmelink G. J., Brandon E. F. A., Klijnstra M., Meijer G. A. L., Schothorst R., Van Egmond H. P.: Carry-over of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from feed to milk in dairy cows. Food Addit. Contam. 2011, 28, 359-372.
  • 13. Kempf M., Heil S., Haßlauer I., Schmidt L., von der Ohe K., Theuring C., Reinhard A., Schreier P., Beuerle T.: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in pollen and pollen products. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2010, 54, 292-300.
  • 14. Materska M., Czeczko R., Karaś M.: Alkaloidy pirolizydynowe ryzyko występowania w miodach. Przem. Spożyw. 2013, 67, 26-28.
  • 15. Molyneux R. J., Gardner D. L., Colegate S. M., Edgar J. A.: Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in livestock: a paradigm for human poisoning? Food Addit. Contam. 2011, 28, 293-307.
  • 16. Mroczek T., Głowniak K.: Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids – Their Chemistry, Occurrence and Significance as Natural compounds, [w:] Rauter A. P., Palma F. B., Araujo M. E., dos Santos S. P. (red.): Natural Products in the New Millennium: Prospects and Industrial Application. Wydawnictwo Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht, Lizbona 2002.
  • 17. National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health: Bioassay of Lasiocarpine for possible carcinogenicity. NTP Tech Report 1978, 39, 1-66.
  • 18. Niedźwiedź A., Nicpoń J.: Sylimaryna w leczeniu i profilaktyce chorób wątroby u koni. Lecznica Dużych Zwierząt 2011, 2, 46-50.
  • 19. Prakash A. S., Pereira T. N., Reilly P. E. B., Seawright A. A.: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in human diet. Mutat. Res. 1999, 443, 53-67.
  • 20. Rasenak R., Muller C., Kleischmmidt M., Rasenak J., Wiedenfeld H.: Venooclusive disease in a foetus caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids of food origin. Fetal Diagn. Ther. 2003, 18, 1321-1327.
  • 21. Roeder E.: Analysis of Pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Curr Org Chem. 1999, 3, 557-576.
  • 22. Roeder E.: Medicinal plants in Europe containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Pharmazie. 1995, 50, 83-98.
  • 23. Smith L. W., Culvenor C. C. J.: Plant sources of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. J. Nat. Prod. 1981, 44, 129-152.
  • 24. Stegelmeier B. L., Edgar J. A., Colegate S. M., Gardner D. R., Schoch T. K., Coulombe R. A., Molyneux R. J.: Pyrrolizidine alkaloid plants, metabolism and toxicity. J. Nat. Toxins 1999, 8, 95-116.
  • 25. Than K. A., Stevens V., Knill A., Gallagher P. F., Gaul K. L., Edgar J. A., Colegate S. M.: Plant-associated toxins in animal feed: Screening and confirmation assay development. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 2005, 121, 5-21.
  • 26. Tomczyk H.: Rozpowszechnienie alkaloidów pirolizydynowych i ich znaczenie taksonomiczne wśród roślin wyższych. Wiad. Botan. 1969, 13, 187-193.
  • 27. Wiedenfeld H.: Toxicity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids – a Serious Health Problem. MÜSBED. 2011, 1, 79-87.
  • 28. Wiedenfeld H., Edgar J.: Toxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids to human and ruminants. Phytochem. Rev. 2011, 10, 137-151.
  • 29. Wiedenfeld H., Roeder E., Bourauel T., Edgar J.: Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids. Structure and Toxicity. Wydawnictwo V&R unipress Bonn University Press, Göttingen 2008.
  • 30. Yee S. B., Kinser S., Hill D. A., Barton C. C., Hotchkiss J. A., Harkema J. R., Ganey P. E., Roth R. A.: Synergistic hepatotoxicity from coexposure to bacterial endotoxin and the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2000, 166, 173-185.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
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Identyfikator YADDA
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