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2015 | 37 | 01 |
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The effects of gibberellins and mepiquat chloride on nitrogenase activity in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

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Application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) to soybean plants is known to induce changes in nitrogenase activity in root nodules, and this led us to hypothesize that PGRs would affect nitrogenase activity in free-living rhizobia cultures. Little is known about the molecular basis of the effects of PGRs on nitrogenase activity in free-living rhizobia cultures. Therefore, a comparative study was conducted on the effects of gibberellins (GA3) and mepiquat chloride (PIX), which regulate plant growth, on the nitrogenase activity of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Fix and nif gene regulation and protein expression in free-living cultures of B. japonicum were investigated using real-time PCR and twodimensional electrophoresis after treatment with GA3 or PIX. GA3 treatment decreased nitrogenase activity and the relative expression of nifA, nifH, and fixA genes, but these effects were reversed by PIX treatment. As expected, several proteins involved in nitrogenase synthesis were down-regulated in the GA3-treated group. Conversely, several proteins involved in nitrogenase synthesis were upregulated in the PIX-treated group, including bifunctiona ornithine acetyltransferase/N-acetylglutamate synthase, transaldolase, ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase iron-sulfur subunit, electron transfer flavoprotein subunit beta, and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Two-pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of GA3 and PIX on nodulation and nitrogenase activity in Rhizobium-treated legumes. Interestingly, GA3 treatment increased nodulation and depressed nitrogenase activity, but PIX treatment decreased nodulation and enhanced nitrogenase activity. Our data show that the nif and fix genes, as well as several proteins involved in nitrogenase synthesis, are up-regulated by PIX and down-regulated by GA3, respectively, in B. japonicum.
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Article 1723 [11 p.], fig.,ref.
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