Effect of germination periods and conditions on chemical composition, fatty acids and amino acids of two black cumin seeds
Background. Chemical composition changes drastically during seeds germination because biochemical activity produces essential compounds and energy, and some nutrients transform to bioactive components as a part of these changes. There are some reports about the effect of germination on nutrient contents of different seeds, but very little information is available on black cumin seed. Besides, most studies have been conducted using a single set of germination conditions, and reports on the effect of modifying the processing conditions are scarce. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of different germination conditions on the content of chemical composition, fatty acids and amino acids of two black cumin seeds originated from Ethiopia (Africa) and Syria (Asia). Methods. Germination process was carried out according to the Urbano method. Proximate Chemical analysis were estimated using AOAC method. The fatty acid composition was determined by gas liquid chromatography and amino acid composition by procedures described by Mario. Statistical analysis was performed on all obtained values. Results. The content of moisture, oil, crude protein, ash and total carbohydrates of raw Ethiopian sample were slightly higher than the amounts of raw Syrian sample. Germination of the two samples increased both oil and protein contents while other constituents were decreased. Little change was observed in fatty acids after germination as saturated and total monounsaturated fatty acids were decreased, while the total of poly- unsaturated fatty acids was increased. The total amino acids increased during germination and it affected by germination conditions. Germinated seeds showed noticeable decreases in the contents of K, Na, Ca and Fe. The results suggested that germinated black seeds are a good food material with improved nutritional properties
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