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Tytuł artykułu

Rozwój terytorialny, kształtowanie się granic oraz sytuacja geopolityczna Luksemburga

Autorzy
Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
EN
Territorial development, formation of borders and geopolitics of Luxembourg
Języki publikacji
PL
Abstrakty
EN
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, just like Andorra, Lichtenstein, San Marino and the Channel Islands, belongs to the relics of European feudal system. Despite such genesis, at the same time Luxembourg remains a modern Western European country with a very high standard of living. The complex history of Luxembourg resulted in the fact, that the Grand Duchy is just a part of historical region of Luxembourg divided into four countries - Luxembourg, Germany, Belgium and France. The historical changes of the territorial shape of the Luxembourg as the separate country was describe in the paper. Luxembourg has always played a far more significant role, than it would result from its economic or territorial potential. Considering both, the area size and the number of inhabitants, the Grand Duchy qualifies as a very small country. It is also an inland country. It is ranked as the 172th largest territory and the 173th population in the world. Surrounded by two huge neighbours (France and Germany) and Belgium it has an extremely disadvantageous political pressure index. Such a modest position of Luxembourg in the ranking of countries' size is not reflected in other rankings. It has a GDP of 60.1 billion USD, which is a 73th result in the world. It is $111.2 thousand per capita and the highest score in the world. Other rankings also place Luxembourg relatively high. The standard of living measured in Human Development Index places Luxembourg as 21 th country in the world in front of Finland and USA. Considering the index of economic freedom, Luxembourg comes 21th. In all the rankings of economic, political or religious freedom, the Grand Duchy is in the leading group of absolutely free and fully democratic countries. Despite the fact, that the Luxembourgers are only a slight majority in their own country (immigrants constitute 44.5% of the total population) there is no such thing as xenophobia in Luxembourg. Luxembourg is also home to Kirchberg European Centre where different European administrative, political, scientific and economic entities hold meetings and conferences. Luxembourg also hosts the European Court of Justice, European Investment Bank and European Court of Auditors, as well as the Secretariat of the European Parliament and institutions of the European Commission. Luxembourg, being a historical region of the medieval Europe, has become a model example of a multicultural region of the united Europe.
Słowa kluczowe
PL
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
61
Numer
1
Opis fizyczny
s.165-183,rys.,bibliogr.
Twórcy
  • Katedra Geografii Politycznej i Studiów Regionalnych, Wydział Nauk Geograficznych, Uniwersytet Łódzki, ul.Kopcińskiego 31, 90-142 Łódź
Bibliografia
  • Agreement concerning the rectification of the boundaries between France and Luxembourg (with annex). Signed at Luxembourg o 24 May 1989, 1989, UN Treaties no 28887 France and Luxembourg.
  • Balicki J., Bogucka M., 1989, Historia Holandii, Ossolineum, Wrocław.
  • Binsfield G. (red.), 2004, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Service information et presse du gouvernement luxembourgeois, Luxembourg.
  • Die Stadt Luxemburg kurz dargestellt, 1978, Staatsministerium Informations- und Pressdienst, Großherzogtum Luxemburg, Luxemburg.
  • Dockendorf G. (red.), 2008, Luxembourg and Greater Region. European Capital of Culture 2007. Final report, Luxembourg.
  • Dostert P., Margue P., 2002, The Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg, Service information et presse du gouvernement luxembourgeois, Luxembourg.
  • Gaunard-Anderson M.-F., 2007, French border regions in the context of European integration: the development of euroregoions [w:] M. Koter, K. Heffuer (red.), Regions in the process of European integration. Dilemmas of regional policy in the European Union, "Region and Regionalism", Łódź-Opole, no 8, vol. 2, 7-15.
  • Gaunard-Anderson M.-F., 2015, Transborder conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Analysis of the Greater Region policies and results [w:] M. Sobczyński, A. Rykała (red.), Geographical-political aspects of the transborder conservation of natural and cultural heritage, "Region and Regionalism", Łódź-Opole, nr 12 (w opracowaniu).
  • Jameson G.O.D., 1973, Short history of Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg, Stanford.
  • Köller H., 1981, Luxemburg [w:] Kleine Enzyklopädie Weltgeschichte, Band 2, VEB Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig, 27-28.
  • Łaptos J., 1995, Historia Belgii, Ossolineum, Wrocław.
  • Łaptos J., 2001, Luksemburg [w:] A. Pankowicz, A. Podraza (red.), Europa, cz. I, Encyklopedia historyczna świata, Opres, Kraków, 412-418.
  • Łaptos J., 2002, Historia Luksemburga [w:] J. Łaptos (red.), Historia małych krajów Europy, Ossolineum, Wrocław, 151-240.
  • Le Centre Europeen de Kirchberg a Luxembourg, 1967, Service Information et Presse du Gouvemement luxembourgeois, Comite de Coordination pour l'Implantation d'Institutions et d'Organismes Européens à Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
  • Lëtzebuerger Armé, 2015, http://www.armee.lu [7.03.2015].
  • Margue P., 1979, A Short history of Luxembourg, Information and Press Department, Ministry of State, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
  • Ordonnance no 212, 1949, Journal Officiel du Commandement en Chef Français en Allemagne.
  • Gouvemement Militarire de la Zone Française d'Occupacion, Baden Baden., nr 262, 1-2.
  • Péporté P., 2007, The creation of medieval history in Luxembourg, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.
  • Piotrowicz L., 1985, Atlas do historii starożytnej, PPWK, Warszawa.
  • Sobczyński M., 2006, Państwa i terytoria zależne. Ujęcie geograficzno-polityczne, Wyd. A. Marszałek, Toruń.
  • Sobczyński M., 2011, Historical region of Luxembourg in the structures of European Union [w:] M. Sobczyński, A. Rykała (red.), Historical regions in the structures of European Union. General issues and policy of European Union towards historical regions, "Region and Regionalism", Łódź-Opole, nr 10, vol. 1, 85-102.
  • Szul R., 2009, Język, naród, państwo. Język jako zjawisko polityczne, PWN, Warszawa.
  • The Constitution of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg of October 17, 1868, 1976, [w:] P. Majerus (red.), The institutions of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Information and Press Department, Ministry of State, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Luxembourg, 64-80.
  • Thewes G. (red.), 2008, About... History of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Information and Press Service of the Luxembourg Government, Luxembourg.
  • Treffers-Daller J., Willemyns R., 2002, Aspects of the Romance-Germanic Language Border. An introduction [w:] J. Treffers-Daller, R. Willemyns (red.), Language contact at the Romance-Germanic language border, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, vol. 23, nr 1-2, Clevedon, 1-9.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
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