Total oil content and fatty acid profile of some almond (Amygdalus communis L.) cultivars
Treść / Zawartość
This study was conducted to determine the total oil contents and fatty acid compositions of some commercial almond cultivars. The total oil contents changed significantly (p<0.05) by year in all cultivars with the exception of cultivar Ferrastar. Total oil contents were changed from 50.90% (Picantili) to 62.01% (Supernova) in 2008 and from 52.44% (Lauranne) to 63.18% (Cristomorto) in 2009. While predominant unsaturated fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids, predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid. The highest amount of oleic acid was obtained in Glorieta in both 2008 (83.35%) and 2009 (72.74%). Linoleic acid content varied by year and the highest content was recorded in Picantili (26.08%) in 2008 and Yaltinski (30.01%) in 2009. The highest amount of palmitic acid was detected in cultivar Sonora in both years, i.e. as 7.76% in 2008 and 10.11% in 2009. The mean UFA:SFA ratio was 11.73 in 2008 but 7.59 in 2009. Principal component (PC) analysis indicated that palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, arachidic acid, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA) and UFA:SFA ratio were primarily responsible for the separation on PC1.
- 1. Abdallah A., Ahumada M.H., Gradziel T.M., Oil content and fatty acid composition of almond kernels from different genotypes and California production regions. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci., 1998, 123, 1029–1033.
- 2. Akçay M.E., Tosun İ., Determination of some late flowering foreign almond cultivars attitute of growing and yield in Yalova region. J. Fac. Agric., 2005, 36, 1, 1–5.
- 3. Balta M.F., Fatty acid profiles for almond [Prunus amydalus Batsch] genotypes with different kernel taste and formation. Iğdır Univ. J. Inst. Sci. Tech., 2013, 3, 1, 17–24.
- 4. Beyhan Ö., Aktaş M., Yılmaz N., Şimşek N., Gerçekçioğlu R., Determination of fatty acid composition of some important almond [Prunus amydalus L.] varieties selected from Tokat province and Eagean region of Turkey. J. Medic. Plants Res., 2011, 5, 4907–4911.
- 5. Bingöl G., Lipids. Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy Publications. Pub. No:41, 1976, Ankara, Turkey, p. 68.
- 6. Bligh E.G., Dyer, W.J., A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol., 1959, 37, 911–917.
- 7. Carratala M.L.M., Garcia-Lopez C., Berenguer-Navarro V., Grane-Teruel N., New contribution to the chemometric characterization of almond cultivars on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46, 963–967.
- 8. Colic S., Rakonjac V., Zec G., Nikolic D., Aksic M.F., Morphological and biochemical evaluation of selected almond[Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] genotypes in northern Serbia. Turk. J. Agric. Forestry, 2012, 36, 429–438.
- 9. Femenia A., Rosello C., Mulet A., Canellas J., Chemical composition of bitter and sweet apricot kernel. J. Agric. Food Chem., 1995, 43, 356–361.
- 10. Gupta A., Sharma P.C., Tilakratne B.M.K.S., Verma A.K., Studies on physico-chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of wild apricot [Prunus armeniaca Linn.] kernel oil. Ind. J.Nat. Prod. Res., 2012, 3, 366–370.
- 11. Habila N., Inuva H.M., Aimola I.A., Agbaji A.S., Ladan Z., Shangodare R., Williams I.S., Odjobo O.B., Ogabiela E., Variation of fatty acids and vitamin E composition in seed oils of some plant species. J. Plant Stud., 2012, 1, 2, 55–60.
- 12. Kırbaşlar F.G., Türker G., Özsoy-Güneş Z., Ünal M., Dülger B., Ertaş E., Kızılkaya B., Evaluation of fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, mineral composition and calorie values of some nuts and seeds from Turkey. Rec. Nat. Prod., 2012, 6, 339–349.
- 13. Kodad O., Socias i Company R., Prats M.S., López Ortiz M.C., Variability in tocopherol concentrations in almond oil and its use as a selection criterion in almond breeding. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol., 2006, 81, 501–507.
- 14. Kodad, O., Estopanan G., Juan T., Socias I Company R., Protein content and oil composition of almond from Moroccan seedlings: Genetic diversity, oil quality and geographical origin. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 2013, 90, 243–252.
- 15. Kodad, O., Socias I Company R., Variability of oil content and of major fatty acid composition in almond [Prunus amydalus Batsch] and its relationship with kernel quality. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, 56, 4096–4101.
- 16. Kodad, O., Alonso, J.M., Espiau, M.T., Estopanan, G., Juan, T., Socias i Company, R., Chemometric characterization of almond germplasm: compositional aspects involved in quality and breeding. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 2011, 136, 273–281.
- 17. Marquard R., Qualitatsanalytic im dienste der ölfflanzenzüctung. Fat Sci. Technol., 1987, 89, 95–99 (in German).
- 18. Moayedi A., Rezeai K., Moini S., Keshavarz B., Chemical compositions of oils from several wild almond species. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 2011, 88, 503–508.
- 19. Özcan M.M., Ünver A., Erkan E., Arslan D., Characteristics of some almond kernel and oils. Sci. Hortic., 2011, 127, 330–333.
- 20. Rabrenovic B., Dimic E., Maksimovic M., Sobajic S., Gajic-Krstajic L., Determination of fatty acid and tocopherol compositions and the oxidative stability of walnut [Juglans regia L.] cultivars grown in Serbia. Czech J. Food Sci., 2011, 29, 74–78.
- 21. Sathe S.K., Seeram N.P., Kshırsagar H.H., Heber D., Lapsley K.A., Fatty acid composition of California grown almonds. Food Chem., 2008, 73, C607-C614.
- 22. Shin E.C., Craft B.D., Pegg R.B., Phillips R.D., Eitenmiller R.R., Chemometric approach to fatty acid profiles in Runner-type peanut cultivars by principal component analysis (PCA). Food Chem., 2010, 119, 1262–1270.
- 23. Socias i Company R., Kodad O., Alonso J.M., Font-Forcada C., Fruit quality in almond: Chemical aspects for breeding strategies. XIV GREMPA Meeting on Pistachios and Almonds, 2010, 94, 235–243.
- 24. Yildirim A.N., Koyuncu F., Tekintas E., Yildirim F.A., Fatty acid content and some chemical properties of selected almond [Prunus amygdalus Batsch] genotypes in Isparta province. J. Adnan Menderes Univ. Agric. Fac., 2008, 5, 1, 19–25.
- 25. Zacheo G., Cappello M.S., Gallo A., Santino A., Cappello A.R., Changes associated with postharvest ageing in almond seeds. LWT – Food Sci. Tech., 2000, 33, 415–423.