Preservation and sustainable management of biodiversity is a major challenge both for science and practice. The term biodiversity refers to the diversity of species, diversity of living space and genetic diversity within individual species. Contemporary extinction of species, destruction of ecosystems and loss of genetic diversity are becoming catastrophic. Protection of biodiversity and its sustainable management need to be considered an important element of sustainable development and thus countering the contemporary global risk society. The so-called hotspots are particularly threatened. Preservation and sustainable management of biodiversity also constitute the foundation for the maintenance of evolution processes, and thus further survival of the biosphere and humanity. This is the objective of the concept of global governance.