Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników


2015 | 159 | 07 |

Tytuł artykułu

Bezpośrednie obserwacje zwierzyny jako element monitorowania dużych kopytnych na przykładzie łosi (Alces alces L.) w Kampinoskim Parku Narodowym

Warianty tytułu

Direct observations of wildlife as an element of the monitoring of large ungulates on the example of moose (Alces alces L.) in the Kampinoski National Park

Języki publikacji



More than 3000 direct observations of 5900 mooses were used to investigate the sex structure and growth of the population living in the Kampinoski National Park (KNP, central Poland). The study used data collected by the park service since 1998. To confirm the hypothesis that the random observations will accurately describe the population structure the experiment was performed with a theoretical population. It was a collection of 102 numbers (1−39 for females, 40−81 for males, and 82−102 for calves). Sex structure of this population was 1:1 and the growth rate was 0.6 calf/female. To provide the randomness all ‘animals' were mixed and renumbered. Each time we drew 4 numbers (like 4 random moose observed). The drawn numbers were grouped into: males, females and calves. Results of the consecutive draws were accumulated, while sex ratio and growth rate of this hypothetical population were constantly recalculated. Changes in ratios with increasing abundance of ‘recorded' moose were observed. It was assumed that the accuracy of estimates of population structure will increase with the number of observed animals and ultimately the results of the draw will show real sex structure and growth of analyzed population. The draw was repeated three times. Each time the results confirmed the hypothesis. A similar procedure was performed for empirical data from KNP. The documented direct observation of moose throughout the year provides a reliable assessment of the sex structure and population growth. At a constant, daily assessment of gender structure requires longer observation time than evaluation of growth. Application of these traits based on a small empirical material and/or short follow−up time may result in significant errors. The sex structure of moose in KNP is at the level of about 1:2, while growth at 0.8 calf/female. The values of indicators describing these characteristics are higher than previously adopted for the purposes of hunting of moose use in Poland. It would clarify the methodology of recording observations – a clear definition of calf age (0−1 years) and a separate listing of moose treated as an independent one− −year age group. It is also strict principle of not combining several separate observations (e.g. summary of the daily observations) as one independent observation. The method of accumulation of direct observation to assess the gender structure and growth should be tested in other deer species.









Opis fizyczny



  • Samodzielny Zakład Zoologii Leśnej i Łowiectwa, Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie, ul.Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warszawa
  • Katedra Łowiectwa i Ochrony Lasu, Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, ul.Wojska Polskiego 71 d, 60-625 Poznań
  • Zakład Bioróżnorodności Leśnej, Uniwersytet Rolniczy w Krakowie, al.29 Listopada 46, 31-425 Kraków


  • Andrén H., Linnel J. D. C., Liberg O., Ahlqvist P., Andersen R., Danell A., Franzén R., Kvam T., Odden J., Segerströn. P. 2002. Estimating total lynx Lynx lynx population size from censuses of family groups. Wildlife Biology 6: 299−306.
  • Andrzejewski R. 2003. Kampinoski Park Narodowy. Monografia. T. 1. Przyroda Kampinoskiego Parku Narodowego. Izabelin.
  • Bartmann R. M., Carpenter L. H., Garrot R. A., Bowden D. C. 1986. Accuracy of helicopter counts of mule deer in pinyon−jupiter woodland. Wildlife Society Bulletin 14: 356−363.
  • Beringer J., Hansen L. P., Sexton O. 1998. Detection rates of white−tailed deer with a helicopter over snow. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26: 24−28.
  • Bromley G. F., Kucherenko S. P. 1983. Kopytnyje juga dalnego wostoka SSSR. Izd. Nauka.
  • Caughley G. 1974. Bias in aerial surveys. Journal of Wildlife Management 38: 921−933.
  • Creté M., Messier F. 1987. Evaluation of indices of Gray Wolf, Canis lupus, density in hardwood−conifer forests of southwestern Quebec. Canadian Field Naturalist 101: 147−152.
  • Crichton V. 1993. Hunter effort and observations – the potential for monitoring trends of moose – a review. Alces 29: 181−185.
  • Elkmorg K. 1991. Estimation of brown bear (Ursus arctor L.) populations by means of reports from moose hunters in central south Norway 1966−68 and 1976−78. Fauna (Oslo) 44: 269−274.
  • Ericsson G. 1993. The impact from hunting on moose movements. Manuscripr Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Umeĺ, Sweden.
  • Ericsson G., Wallin K. 1999. Hunter observations as an index of moose Alces alces population parameters. Wildlife Biology 5: 177−185.
  • Gasaway W. C., Dubois S. D. 1987. Estimating moose population numbers. Swedish Wildlife Research Supplement 1: 603−635.
  • Gębczyńska Z., Raczyński J. 1989. Distribution, population structure, and social organization of moose in the Biebrza Valley, Poland. Acta Theriologica 34 (13): 195−217.
  • Haagerund H., Morow K., Nygren K., Stĺlfelt F. 1987. Management of moose in Nordic countries. Swedish Wildlife Research Supplement 1: 635−642.
  • Jaren V. 1992. Monitoring Norwegian moose populations for management purposes. Alces Supplement 1: 105−111.
  • Jeziorski J., Hryniewicki T., Kopeć G., Danyłow J. 2012. Strategia ochrony i gospodarowania populacją łosia w Kampinoskim Parku Narodowym; projekt. Maszynopis. KPN, Izabelin.
  • Kindberg J., Ericsson G., Svenson J. E. 2009. Monitoring rare or elusive large mammals using effort−corrected voluntary observers. Biological Conservation 142 (1): 159−165.
  • Kozlo P. G. 1983. Ekologo−morfologiceskij analiz populacji łosja. Izd. Nauka i Technika, Minsk.
  • Krausman P. R., Cain J. W. [red.]. 2002. Wildlife management and conservation: Contemporary Principles and Practices. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
  • McCullough D. R. 1979. The George Reserve deer herd. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, USA.
  • McCullough D. R. 1992. Concepts of large herbivore dynamics. W: McCollough D. R., Barrett R .H. [red.]. Wildlife 2001: populations. Elsevier Science Publishes, London.
  • Mech L. D. 1966. The wolves of Isle Roalye. W: Fauna of the National Parks of the United States Fauna. Series 7.
  • Nygren T., Pesonen M. 1993. The moose population (Alces alces L.) and methods of moose management in Finland, 1975−1989. Finnish Game Research 48: 46−53.
  • Peterson R. L. 1955. North American Moose. University Toronto Press.
  • Peterson R. O. 1977. Wolf ecology and prey relationship on Isle Royale. Nat. Park Serv. Sci. Monograph Ser. 11: 1−210.
  • Solberg E. J., Sather B. E. 1999. Hunter observations of moose Alces alces as a management tool. Wildlife Biology 5: 107−117.
  • Steinhorst R. K., Samuel M. D. 1989. Sightability adjustment methods for aerial surveys of wildlife populations. Biometrics 45: 415−425.
  • Sather B. E., Solberg E. J., Heim M., Stacy J. E., Jakobsen K. S., Olstad R. 2004. Offspring sex ratio in moose Alces alces in relation to paternal age: an experiment. Wildlife Biology 10 (1): 51−57.
  • Ueno M., Solberg E. J., Iijima H., Rolandsen C. M., Gangsei L. E. 2014. Performance of hunting statistics as spatiotemporal density indices of moose (Alces alces) in Norway. Ecosphere 5 (2): 1−21.
  • Yoccoz N. G., Nichols J. D., Bouliner T. 2001. Monitoring of biological diversity in space and time. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 446−453.

Typ dokumentu



Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.