The process by which Poland's agriculture and rural areas arc adapting to and moving towards the European Union denotes the onset of adjustment processes and changes that will determine their development in the coming decades. From this point of view it is possible to perceive chances, challenges and threats. The chances for development comprise the opportunities for: an acceleration of the country's economic development, growth in the production and export of agri-cultural produce and food, the restructuring of agriculture, funding, the benefits of an evening-up of prices and enhanced use of productive potential, changes in the scale of production, regional development, a shift in output to eastern areas of the EU, migration, education, research and the dissemination of knowledge. The challenges and hopes associated with integration relate to the chances for change in agrarian structure and the scale of production, while the challenges concern costs, the quality of output, competitiveness on domestic and foreign markets, the household economy, excesses of productive potential, development and rural areas, etc. The threats and limitations concerning rural areas and agriculture relate to the market, the competition of market forces, the choice of interventionism versus market liberalism, dilemmas relating to production, foreign trade and foreign competition, the income barriers in agriculture, own costs, the possibility that the country will be marginalised, the possibility of changes in the Common Agricultural Policy, restrictions 011 economic relationships with countries outside the EU. concepts for the repatriation of agricultural policy, negotiation threats, etc.