As to the volume of agricultural land, Poland’s capacity to accomplish agricultural objectives is relatively high. From the geodetic perspective, it has 18.93 mln ha of agricultural land at its disposal, including 13.97 mln ha of arable land. During the time of system transformation, the basic trend in the use of these resources was towards a quick reduction in the volume of agricultural land used by farms and a deterioration in the degree of their use on farms. Poland’s accession to the EU, along with the adoption of the Common Agricultural Policy, did not hinder the exclusion of agricultural land from farms. It has improved, however, (at least in the formal aspect) the degree of their use within agricultural holdings. The fundamental drawback of current agricultural land management in Poland is low – as per demand – dynamics in the improvement of farm area structure, and in particular the lack of an articulated trend towards rapid growth in the agricultural land volume among agricultural holdings comprising arable land of above 50 ha. If such circumstances are to remain unchanged, the competitive edge of Polish agriculture will quickly fall into decline.