Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2012 | 3(6) |

Tytuł artykułu

Charakterystyka i perspektywy wykorzystania Citrobacter spp.

Warianty tytułu

Characteristics and applicative potential of Citrobacter spp.

Języki publikacji



Citrobacter spp. to względnie beztlenowe, Gram-ujemne pałeczki, należące do rodziny Enterobacteriaceae. Do przedstawiceli rodzaju zalicza się 11 gatunków C. amalonaticus, C. freundii, C. koseri (diversus). W niniejszym artykule sklasyfikowano, scharakteryzowano i podano sposoby izolacji oraz identyfikacji Citrobacter spp. Przedstawiono także wyniki badań nad biotechnologicznymi możliwościami wykorzystania bakterii z rodzaju Citrobacter w procesach bioremediacyjnych, produkcji związków o dużym znaczeniu gospodarczym, np. pirogalolu czy 1,3-propanodiolu, oraz wytwarzaniu enzymów (amylaz, lipaz, metylaz).
Citrobacter spp. are facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative rods belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The genus consists of eleven species among which are C. amalonaticus, C. freundii, C. koseri (diversus). In this article the bacteria of the genus Citrobacter spp. are classified and characterized. Methods of isolation and identification are specified. In addition, current state of biotechnological research and applications of Citrobacter spp. such as: bioremediation processes, synthesis of industrially important organic compounds – e.g. pyrogallol or 1,3-propanediol and production of enzymes (amylases, lipases, metylases) are presented.





Opis fizyczny



  • Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, Poznań
  • Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, Poznań
  • Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, Poznań


  • Al-Hasan M.N., Eckel-Passow J.E., Baddour L.M., Bacteremia complicating gram-negative urinary tract infections: a population base study, Journal of Infection 2010, 60, s. 278-285.
  • Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 3rd ed., American Public Health Association, 1992.
  • An S.-Y., Min S.-K., Cha I.-H., Choi Y.-L., Cho Y.-S., Kim C.-H., Lee Y.-C., Decolorization of triphenylmethane and azo dyes by Citrobacter sp., Biotechnology Letters 2002, 24, s. 1037-1040.
  • Arens S., Verbist L., Differentation and susceptibility of Citrobacter isolates from patients in a university hospital, Clinical Microbiology and Infection 1997, 3, s. 53-57.
  • Badger J.D., Stins M.F., Kim K.S., Citrobacter freundii invades and replicates in human brain microvascular in endothelial cell, Infection and Immunity 1999, 67(8), s. 4208-4215.
  • Barbirato F., Himmi E.H., Conte T., Bories A., 1,3-Propanediol production by fermentation: an interesting way to valorize glycerin from the ester and ethanol industries, Industrial Crops and Products 1998, 7, s. 281-289.
  • Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, The Williams and Wilkins company/Baltimore 1994.
  • Bednarski W., Reps A., Biotechnologia żywności, Wydawnictwo Naukowo-Techniczne, Warszawa 2003.
  • Biebl H., Marten S., Fermentation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol: use of cosubstrates, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 1995, 44, s. 15-19.
  • Bitinaité J.B., Klimasauskas S.J., Butkus V.V., Janulaitis A.A., Characterization of restriction-modification enzymes Cfr13 I from Citrobacter freundii RFL13, FEBS Letters 1985, 182(2), s. 509-513.
  • Boenigk R., Bowien S., Gottschalk G., Fermentation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol in continous cultures of Citrobacter freundii, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 1993, 38, s. 453-457.
  • Bozic D., Grazulis S., Siksnys V., Huber R., Crystal structure of Citrobacter freundii restriction endonuclease Cfr10I at 2.15-A resolution, Journal of Molecular Biology 1996, 255, s. 176-186.
  • Brenner D.J., Grimont P.A., Steigerwalt A.G., Fanning G.R., Ageron E., Riddle C.F., Classification of Citrobacteria by DNA hybridization: designation of Citrobacter farmeri sp. nov., Citrobacter youngae sp. nov., Citrobacter braaki sp., nov., Citrobacter werkamii sp. nov., Citrobacter sedlakii sp. nov., and three unnamed Citrobacter Genomospecies, International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 1993, 43, s. 645-658.
  • Brenner D.J., O’Hara C.M., Grimont P.A.D., Biochemical identification of Citrobacter species defined by DNA hybridization and description of Citrobacter gillenii sp. nov. (formerly Citrobacter genomospecies 10) and Citrobacter murliniae sp. nov. (formerly Citrobacter genomospecies 11), Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1999, 37, s. 2619-2624.
  • Curtis T., Sloan W., Scannell J., Estimating prokaryotic diversity and its limits, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2002, 99(16), s. 10494-10499.
  • Celińska E., Debottlenecking the 1,3-propanediol pathway by metabolic engineering, Biotechnology Advances 2010, 28, s. 519-530.
  • Da Silva G.P., Mack M., Contiero J., Glicerol: A promising and abundant carbon source for industrial microbiology, Biotechnology Advances 2009, 27, s. 30-39.
  • Daniel R., Boenigk R., Gottschalk G., Biochemical and molecular characterization of the oxidative branch of glycerol utilization by Citrobacter freundii, Journal of Bacteriology 1995, 16, s. 143-149.
  • Deckwer W.-D., Microbial conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol, FEMS Microbiology Reviews 1995, 16, s. 143-149.
  • Devenish J.A., Schiemann D.A., An abbreviated scheme for identification of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from food enrichment on CIN (cefsulodin-irgasannovobiocin) agar, Canadian Journal of Microbiology 1981, 27, s. 937-941.
  • Ewing W.H., Davis B.R., Biochemical characterization of Citrobacter diversus (Burkey) Werkman and Gillen and designation of the neotype strain, International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 1972, 22, s. 12-18.
  • Farmer J.J., Davis B.R., Hickman-Brenner F.W., Mcwhorter A., Huntley-Carter G.P., Asbury M.A., Riddle C., Wathen-Grady H.G., Elias C., Fanning G.R., Steigerwalt A.G., O’Hara C.M., Morris G.K., Smith P.B., Brenner D.J., Biochemical identification of new species and biogroups of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens, Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1985, 21, s. 46-76.
  • Frederiksen W., Sogaard P., The genus Citrobacter, [w:] The Prokaryotes: A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria. Ecophysiology, Isolation, Identification, Application, Balows A., Truper H.G., Dworkin M., Harder W., Schleifer K.H, 2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1991, s. 2744-2753.
  • Frederiksen W., Citrobacter koseri (n. sp.) a new species within the genus Citrobacter, with a comment on the taxonomic position of Citrobacter intermedium (Werkman and Gillen), Publ. Fac. Sci. Univ. J.E. Purkyne 1970, 47, s. 89-94.
  • Gadd G.M., Bioremediatiol potential of microbial mechanisms of metal mobilization and immobilization, Current Option in Biotechnology 2000, 11, s. 271-279.
  • Gasiunas G., Sasnauskas G., Tamulaitis G., Urbanke C., Razaniene D., Siksnys V., Tetrameric restriction enzymes: expansion to the GIY-YIG nuclease family, Nucleic Acids Research 2008, 36, s. 938-949.
  • Goodman R.E., Pickett M.J., Delayed lactose fermentation by Enterobacteriaceae, Journal of Bacteriology 1966, 92, s. 318-327.
  • Gottschalk G., Averhoff B., Process for the Microbiological Preparation of 1,3-propanediol from Glycerol by Citrobacter, Unitated States, 1992, Patent: 5164309.
  • Gunasekaran V., Kotay S.M., Das D., Alkaline lipase production by Citrobacter freundii IIT-BT L139, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 2006, 44, s. 485-491.
  • Homann T., Tag C., Biebl H., Deckwer W.D., Schink B., Fermentation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella and Citrobacter strains, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 1990, 33, s. 121-126.
  • Janda J.M., Abbott S.L., 16S rRNA gene sequencing for bacterial identification in the diagnostic laboratory: pluses, perils, and pitfalls, Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2007, 45, s. 2761-2764.
  • Janda J.M., Abbott S.L., Cheung W.K., Hanson D.F., Biochemical identification of Citrobacteria in the clinical laboratory, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 32, 1994, s. 1850-1854.
  • Janda J.M., Abbott S.L., The Enterobacteria, ASM Press, 2nd ed., Washington DC 2006.
  • Jeong B.C., Hawes C., Bonthrone K.M., Macaskie L.E., Localization of enzymically enhanced heavy metal accumulation by Citrobacter sp. and metal accumulation in vitro by liposomes containing entrapped enzyme, Microbiology 1997, 143, s. 2497-2507.
  • Jeong B.C., Macaskie L.E., Production of two phosphatase by a Citrobacter sp. grown in batch and continuous culture, Enzyme and Microbial Technology 1999, 24, s. 218-224.
  • Kayser F.H., Bienz K.A., Eckert J., Zinkernagel R.M., Mikrobiologia lekarska, red. P.B. Heczko, A. Pietrzyk, Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Warszawa 2007.
  • Keuth S., Bisping B., Vitamin B12 Production by Citrobacter freudnii or Klebsiella pneumoniae during Tempeh Fermentation and Proof of Enterotoxin Absence by PCR, Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1994, 60(5), s. 1495-1499.
  • Kobashi K., Takebe S., Sakai T., Urethane-hydrolyzing enzyme from Citrobacter sp., Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1990, 38(5), s. 1326-1328.
  • Kośmider A., Czaczyk K., Perspektywy wykorzystania glicerolu w procesach biotechnologicznych, Postępy Mikrobiologii 2009, 48(4), s. 277-287.
  • Kumar A.R., Jayaraman A., Lakshmanan M., Gunasekaran P., Bioconversion of gallic acid into pyrogallol by immobilized Citrobacter freundii TB3, Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering 1992, 74(3), s. 159-162.
  • Lavinge J.P., Efez C., Bouziges N., Mahatma A., Sotto A., Clinical and molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Citrobacter spp. infection in a French university hospital, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 2007, 26, s. 439-441.
  • Lowe B.A., Marsh T.L., Isaacs-Cosgrove N., Kirkwood R.N., Kupel M., Mulks M.H., Microbial comunities in the tonsils of healthy pigs, Veterinary Microbiology 2011, 147, s. 346-357.
  • Lubys A., Menkevičius S., Timinskas A., Butkus V., Janulaitis A., Cloning and analysis of translational control for genes encoding the Cfr9I restriction-modification system, Gene 1994, 141, s. 85-89.
  • Mohanty S., Singhal R., Sood S., Dhawan B., Kapil A., Das B.K., Citrobacter infection in a tertiary care hospital in Northern India, Journal of Infection 2007, 54, s. 58-64.
  • O’Hara C.M., Roman S.B., Miller J.M., Ability of commercial identification systems to identify newly recognized species of Citrobacter, Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995, 33, s. 242- 245.
  • Orij J.C., Neweke C.O., Nwabueze R.N., Nwanyanwu C.E., Alisi C.S., Etim-Osowo E.N., Production and properties of α-amylase from Citrobacter species, An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science 2009, 4(1), s. 45-57.
  • Pflugmacher U., Gottschalk G., Development of an immobilized cell reactor for the production of 1,3-propanediol by Citrobacter freundii, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 1994, 41, s. 313-316.
  • Pobucewicz A., Czernomysy-Furowicz D., Charakterystyka Citrobacter freundii, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem ich zdolności do wytwarzania toksyn, Postępy Mikrobiologii 2010, 49(1), s. 43-46.
  • Rymowicz W., Wojtatowicz M., Radziwicz A., EKSPERTYZA: Użycie odpadów rolniczych do produkcji użytecznych substancji chemicznych w procesach zielonej chemii i białej technologii – ocena możliwości naukowo-badawczych i wdrożeń, Dolnośląskie Centrum Zaawansowanych Technologii, Regionalna Sieć Naukowo-Gospodarcza „BIOTECH”, 2006.
  • Rymowicz W., Fatykhova A.R., Kamzolova S.V., Rywińska A., Morgunov I.G., Citric acid production from glicerol-containing waste biodiesel industry by Yarrowia lypolytica in batch, repeated batch, and cell recycle regimes, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2010, 87, s. 971-979.
  • Saffert R.T., Cunningham S.A., Ihde S.M., Monson Jobe K.E., Mandrekar J., Patel R., Comparison of Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometer to BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for Identification of Gram Negative Bacilli, Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011, 49(3), s. 887-892.
  • Samonis G., Karageorgopulus D.E., Kofteridis D.P., Matthaiou D.K., Sidiropoulu V., Maraki S., Falagas M.E., Citrobacter infectins in a general hospital: characteristics and outcomes, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 2009, 28, s. 61-68.
  • Saxena R.K, Anand P., Saran S., Isar J., Microbial production of 1,3-propanediol: Recent development and emerging opportunities, Biotechnology Advances 2009, 27, s. 895-913.
  • Schauer D.B., Zabel B.A., Pedraza I.F., O’Hara C.M., Steigerwalt A.G., Brenner D.J., Genetic and biochemical characterization of Citrobacter rodentium sp. nov, Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1995, 33(8), s. 2064-2068.
  • Schloss P.D., Handelsman J., Status of the Microbial Census, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 2004, 68(4), s. 686-691.
  • Seifert C., Bowien S., Gottschalk G., Daniel R., Identification and expression of the genes and purification and characterization of the genes products involved in reactivation of coenzyme B12-dependent glycerol dehydratase of Citrobacter freundii, European Journal of Biochemistry 2001, 268, s. 2369-2378.
  • Sharma J., Fulekar M.F., Potential of Citrobacter freundii for bioaccumulation of heavy metal – copper, Biology and Medicine 2009, 1(3), s. 7-14.
  • Sharma M., Anad S.K., Biofilm evaluation as an essentials component of HACCP for food/dairy processing industry – a case, Food Control 2002, 13, s. 469-477.
  • Spanggaard B., Huber I., Nielsen J., Nielsen T., Appel K.F., Gram L., The microflora of rainbow trout intestine: A comparison of traditional and molecular identification, Aquaculture 2000, 182, s. 1-15.
  • Szewczyk M. E., Podłoża izolacyjne, [w:] Diagnostyka bakteriologiczna, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 2005.
  • Thompson L.J., Gray V.M., Kalala B., Lindsay D., Reynolds K., Von Holy A., Biohydrogen production by Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii in carrier induced granules, Biotechnology Letters 2008, 30, s. 271-274.
  • Wang H., Su J.Q., Zheng X.W., Tian Y., Xiong X.J., Zheng T.L., Bacterial decolorization and degradation of the reactive dye Reactive Red 180 by Citrobacter sp. CK3, International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 2009, 63, s. 395-399.
  • Willke T., Vorlop K., Biotransformation of glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 2008, 110, s. 831-840.
  • York M.K., Brooks G.F., Fiss E.H., Evaluation of the autoSCAN-W/A rapid system for Identification and Susceptibility Testing of Gram-Negative Fermentative Bacilli, Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1992, 30, s. 2903-2910.
  • Źródła internetowe

Typ dokumentu



Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.