Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2013 | 22 | 5 |

Tytuł artykułu

Spatial-temporal variations of sulphur dioxide concentration, source, and probability assessment using a GIS-based geostatistical approach


Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



Ground-level sulphur dioxide is one of the air pollutants of high concern as a typical indicator of urban air quality. To inform decisions regarding, for instance, the protection of public health from elevated SO₂ levels in the city of Balikesir, an understanding of spatial-temporal variance of SO₂ patterns is necessary. Therefore, the aim of this study is to locate sample points, characterize distribution patterns, perform the probability map, and map SO₂ distributions by means of spatial information sciences. In this work, the data were compiled from 48 sampling sites using passive sampling on 10-17 March 2010 (in winter) and on 13-20 August 2010 (in summer). The estimations of SO₂ levels at unsampled locations were carried out with the inverse distance weighted method. Finally, locations exceeding the Turkish Air Quality Standard threshold value were determined in the Balikesir by use of geostatistical algorithms (Indicator kriging). The capability of the methods to predict air quality data in an area with multiple land-use types and pollution sources were then discussed. The results of the passive sampling study show that the winter and summer average concentrations are 32.79 µg/m³ and 28.27 µg/m³ for SO₂, respectively. It is expected that where industrial activity is not excessively important, traffic and domestic heating systems are the main source of SO₂ precursors. Moreover, using Indicator Kriging, results show that there are multiple hotspots for SO₂ concentrations and they are strongly correlated to the locations of industrial plants, traffic, and domestic heating systems in Balikesir.








Opis fizyczny



  • Corlu Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering, Namik Kemal University, Corlu, Tekirdag, Turkey
  • Department of Geography, Balikesir University, Cagis Campus, Balikesir, Turkey


  • 1. EUROPEAN ENVİRONMENTAL AGANCY,, access: 2 July 2012.
  • 2. DENBY B., SUNDVOR I., CASSİANİ M., SMET P., LEEUW F., HORÁLEK J. Spatial Mapping of Ozone and SO₂ Trends in Europe. Sci. Total Environ. 408, 4795, 2010.
  • 3. DOGEROGLU T. Air pollution in Turkey, NATO-ARW, Global Atmospheric Change and its Impact on Regional Air Quality, pp, 22-31, Irkutsk, Rusya: Kluwer Pub. 2001.
  • 4. TAYANC M. An assessment of spatial and temporal variation of sulfur dioxide levels over Istanbul, Turkey. Environ. Pollut. 107, (1), 61, 2001.
  • 5. ULUSAL HAVA KALITESI İZLEME AĞI., access 10 September 2012.
  • 6. GREENLAND D.A., YORTY R.A. The spatial distribution of particulate concentrations in the denver metropolitan area. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 75, (1), 69, 1985.
  • 7. PHILLIPS D.L., LEE E.H., HERSTROM A.A., HOGSETT W.E., TINGEY D.T. Use of auxiliary data for spatial interpolation of ozone exposure in southeastern forests. Environmetrics, 8, 43, 1997.
  • 8. CASADO L.S., ROUHANİ S., CARDELİNO C.A., FERRİER A.J. Geostatistical analysis and visualization of hourly ozone data. Atmos. Environ., 28, (12), 2105, 1994.
  • 9. HOLLAND D.M., DE OLIVEIRA V., COX L.H., SMITH R.L. Estimation of regional trends in sulfur dioxide over the eastern United States. Environmetrics, 11, (4), 373, 2000.
  • 10. WONG D.W., YUAN L., PERLİN S.A. Comparison of spatial interpolation methods for the estimation of air quality data. J. Expo. Anal. Env. Epid. 14, (5), 404, 2004.
  • 11. DİEM J.E., COMRİE A.C. Predictive mapping of air pollution involving sparse spatial observations. Environ. Pollut. 119, 99, 2002.
  • 12. MYERS D.E. Interpolation and estimation with spatially located data. Chemometr Intell Lab, 11, 209, 1991.
  • 13. TECER L.H. Investigation of air pollution and meteorological effect on human healths in Balikesir, Problemsof regional developmentin South MarmaraNational Symposium, 2-3 June, pp. 127-138, Balikesir: Bandırma, 2008.
  • 14. DE SANTİS F., DOGEROGLU T., FİNO A., MENİCHELLİ S., VAZZANA C., ALLEGRİNİ I. Laboratory development and field evaluation of a new diffusive sampler to collect nitrogen oxides in the ambient air. Anal Bioanal Chem. 373, 901, 2002.
  • 15. OZDEN O. Monitoring of air quality by use of passive samplers. Master of Science Thesis. Eskisehir, Turkey: Anadolu University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Environmental Engineering Program, 2005.
  • 16. WILLMOTT C.J., MATSUURA K. Smart interpolation of annually averaged air temperature in the United States. J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 2577, 1995.
  • 17. GUNNINK J.L., BURROUGH P.A. Interactive spatial analysis of soil attribute patterns using exploratory data analysis (EDA) and GIS. In: Masser I., Salge F. (Ed.), Spatial Analytical Perspectives on GIS, New York: Taylor & Francis pp. 87-99, 1996.
  • 18. BURROUGH P.A., MCDONNELL R.A. Principles of geographical information systems.Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.
  • 19. GOOVAERTS P. Geostatistics for natural resources evaluation. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1997.
  • 20. SUN X., MANTON M.J., EBERT E.E. Regional rainfall estimation using double-kriging of raingauge and satellite observations, Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) Research Report, Australia: published by the Bureau of Meteorology, 94, 2003.
  • 21. GOOVAERTS P., TRINH H.T., DEMOND A. A., FRANZBLAU D., GARABRANT B., GILLESPIE J., LEPKOWSKI A., ADRIAENS P. Geostatistical modelling of the spatial distribution of soil dioxins in the vicinity of an incinerator, Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, (10), 3648, 2008.
  • 22. LIU L.J.S., ROSSINI A.J. Use of kriging models to predict 12- hour mean ozone concentrations in metropolitan toronto-a pilot study. Environ. Int. 22, (6), 677, 1994.
  • 23. TAGIL S. Physical geography of Balikesir plain and its surroundings. Ankara: Anil Printing House, ISBN: 975-270-307-0, 2004.
  • 24. CHATTOPADHYAY S., GUPTA S., SAHA R.N. Spatial and temporal variation of urban air quality: A GIS approach. J. Environ. Prot. 1, 264, 2010.
  • 25. ZOU B., WİLSON J.G., ZHAN F.B., ZENG Y., WU K. Spatial-temporal variations in regional ambient sulfur dioxide concentration and source-contribution analysis: a dispersion modeling approach. Atmos. Environ. 45, 4977, 2011.
  • 26. SERTEL E., DEMIREL H., KAYA S., DEMIR I. Spatial prediction of transport related urban air quality. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry: Remote Sensing Spatial Information Science, XXXVII, (B2), 805, 2008.

Typ dokumentu



Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.