Cancer is a very important problem in both medical and social respects. In recent years, there has been a shift in approach to oncological prevention, diagnostics and treatment. As a result, oncology has become an interdisciplinary field. Factors relevant for successful oncological treatment are: sequence, type and scope of intervention, including diagnosis of the cancer, assessment of its progression, systemic treatment, surgery, radiotherapy, supportive therapy and rehabilitation. Rehabilitation addresses the realm of psychology (psychooncology), as well as somatic and social issues. Physical therapy is a notion inseparably related to medical rehabilitation and it encompasses a range of treatments which are based on the body’s reactivity to stimuli. The purpose of this article is to present the specific character, the methods and the role of physical therapy in oncology, as an increasingly popular strategy in medicine, which helps to improve performance and physical function in cancer patients. Physical therapy is essential in primary and secondary cancer prevention and it greatly contributes to improving the quality of life of patients and helps them recover quicker. Four basic kinds of intervention in oncological rehabilitation include: preventive interventions, restorative interventions, supportive interventions and palliative interventions. The main principle in rehabilitating a patient with an advanced cancer is progressing steadily but gradually. The primary and essential form of rehabilitation for cancer patients is movement exercise i.e. kinesiotherapy. Integration and cooperation during group exercise are also among the strategies that therapists seek to employ while working to improve the condition of patients diagnosed with cancer. Kinesiotherapy prevents pulmonary and thromboembolic complications in cancer patients. One method of physical therapy applied in cancer treatment is lymphatic drainage (massage), which improves circulation of lymph. To sum up, physical therapy plays an increasingly important role in holistic care of cancer patients. It is indispensable and should become a standard approach, as a method of reducing the risk of complications, helping in faster recovery and limiting the economic and social costs of treatment.