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2010 | 32 | 4 |
Tytuł artykułu

What are ‘‘heavy metals’’ in Plant Sciences?

Autorzy
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Plants do not have the ability to sense physical properties of metals, e.g. specific weight. The term ‘‘heavy metal’’ was defined mainly by the specific weight of metals. The definition was often connected with the expectation that the substance should be toxic. This definition is not acceptable and also inconsistent in use as already stressed in literature. However, in Plant Sciences, the term is so widely used that it is hardly possible to eliminate it. We suggest instead defining the term in a more unequivocal way. This should be done on the basis of the periodic system of elements. Here, we suggest introducing the following three subgroups forming the group of heavy metals for use in Plant Sciences. 1st subgroup: all transition elements except La and Ac (Transition metals). 2nd subgroup: rare earth elements, subdivided in the series of lanthanides and the series of actinides including La and Ac themselves (Rare earth metals). 3rd subgroup: a heterogenous group p-elements including the metal Bi, the amphoterous oxides forming elements Al, Ga, In, Tl, Sn, Pb, Sb and Po, and the metalloids Ge, As and Te. We suggest using the term ‘‘lead-group’’ for this 3rd subgroup of heavy metals as in Toxicology and Environmental Sciences, Pb is the most prominent representative of this group.
Słowa kluczowe
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
32
Numer
4
Opis fizyczny
p.615-619,fig.,ref.
Twórcy
  • Institute of General Botany and Plant Physiology, University of Jena, Jena, Germany
  • Institute for General Botany and Plant Physiology, Friedrich-Schiller University, Dornburger Str. 159, 07743 Jena, Germany
Bibliografia
  • Appenroth KJ (2009) The definition of heavy metals and their role in biological systems, Chap 2. In: Varma A, Sherameti I (eds) Soil heavy metals, vol 19, Soil biology Springer, Berlin, pp 19–29
  • Berry WL, Wallace A (1981) Toxicity—the concept and relationship to the dose–response curve. J Plant Nutr 3:13–19
  • Duffus JH (2002) ‘‘Heavy metal’’—a meaningless term? Pure Appl Chem 74:793–807
  • Hagemeyer J (2004) Ecophysiology of plant growth under heavy metal stress. In: Prasad MNV (ed) Heavy metal stress in plants, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 201–222
  • Housecroft CE, Sharpe AG (2008) Inorganic chemistry. Prentice Hall, Harlow
  • Kovacs E, Nyitrai P, Czovek P, Ovari M, Keresztes A (2009) Investigation into the mechanism of stimulation by low-concentration stressors in barley seedlings. J Plant Physiol 166:72–79
  • Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Oxford University Press, London
  • Müller U (2007) Inorganic structural chemistry. Wiley, Chichester
  • Naumann B, Eberius M, Appenroth KJ (2007) Growth rate bases dose-response relationships and EC-values of ten heavy metals using the duckweed growth inhibition test (ISO 20079) with Lemna minor L. clone St. J Plant Physiol 164:1656–1664
  • Nieboer E, Richardson DHS (1980) The replacement of the nondescript term ‘‘heavy metals’’ by a biologically and chemically significant classification of metal ions. Environ Poll Ser B Chem Phys 1:3–26
  • Nyitrai P, Mayer M, Ovari M, Keresztes A (2007) Involvement of the phosphoinositide signalling pathway in the anti-senescence effect of low-concentration stressors on detached barley leaves. Plant Biol 9:420–426
  • Pearson RG (1968) Hard and soft acids HSAB. 1. Fundamental principles. J Chem Educ 45:581–587
  • Rengel Z (2004) Heavy metals as essential nutrients. In: Prasad MNV (ed) Heavy metal stress in plants, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 271–294
  • Shaw BP, Sahu SK, Mishra RK (2004) Heavy metal induced oxidative damage in terrestrial plants. In: Prasad MNV (ed) Heavy metal stress in plants, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 84–126
  • Van Assche F, Clijsters H (1990) Effects of heavy metals on enzyme activity in plants. Plant Cell Environ 13:195–206
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.agro-256c7d1c-4d18-414e-b706-ee97f0c80d7f
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