Neurotrophins and their receptors in early development of the mammalian nervous system
Treść / Zawartość
Neurotrophins belonging to the class of growth factors and including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) are widely recognized as essential factors in the developing central nervous system (CNS). Neurotrophins are synthesized as precursor forms (proneurotrophins). Mature forms of neurotrophins exert their effect by binding to specific tyrosine kinases receptors (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC) as well as via the p75 receptor, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily while proneurotrophins interact with the receptor p75 or co-receptor complex of p75 and sortilin, that is a Vps10p domain-containing transmembrane protein. Expression of neurotrophins corresponds with the onset of neurogenesis in developing mammalian species. BDNF is low in early embryonic stages of development, while NT-3 highly expresses in the developing CNS. Expression of neurotrophins receptors mainly overlaps at early development. Data concerning early distribution of neurotrophins and their receptors in the nervous system and results in mice with targeted disruptions of neurotrophin or receptor genes show that neurotrophins and their receptors play distinct roles in control and regulation of the most crucial developmental processes such as proliferation, migration, differentiation, survival, apoptosis and synaptic plasticity.
- Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw, Poland
- Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw, Poland
- Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw, Poland
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