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2012 | 21 | 5 |
Tytuł artykułu

Risk elements in soils of burdened areas of Eastern Slovakia

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Areal or pointed extension of soil contamination by risk elements was determined in samples from 47 locatoins of agricultural soils in "pollution-loaded" regions of eastern Slovakia during 2006 and 2008. These regions were primarily the areas of middle Spiš and northern Gemer, where soils were under long-term contamination by solid polluting elements containing risk elements. A source of contamination was metallurgical plants located in the broken terrain with unfavorable dispersion conditions. Risk elements Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, and As were determined in the lixivium of Aqua regia and their accessible (mobile) forms in the lixivium of 1 mol∙dm⁻³ NH₄HNO₃. To consider the solubility of the risk elements the lixivium of 0.05 mol∙dm⁻³ EDTA (mobile and mobilizable forms) and the lixivium of 2 mol∙dm⁻³ HNO₃ (potentially releasable contents) was used. Ascertained contents of the risk elements in the lixivium of Aqua regia correspond with the results regarding risk elements that were obtained by reduction in the mixture of inorganic acids before 1990. Then values of the solid polluting elements containing risk elements were the highest. The results confirm the large areal character of soil contamination by Hg and As in the emission areals of metallurgical plants where the natural endegeneous geochemical abnormalities now exist. Extremely high values of Pb, Zn, and Cd in close proximity to the former shaft-furnace (without any possibility of dispersion) are the result of solid polluting elements from Pb, Sn, alloys and ZnSO₄ production facilities. A considerably larger area of contaminated soils by Cu is connected to refined flame furnace copper production and converters and its dispersion into the wider areas. Some isolated locations with Cd, Cu, Ni, Hg, and As excesses are connected to geological-petrographical conditions where polymetallic mineralizing of old environmental loads is characteristic. In the samples with high contents of risk elements in Aqua regia, there were also over limit values for accessible plant risk elements. In the sum of mobile and mobilizable forms with relatively the highest content of Cd (36.57%) and the lowest Cr (0.36%) were determined in the following decreasing order Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Zn > Cr. The relevant prevalence of risk elements in residual fractions is apparently connected to their emission origin from thermic processes as predominantly insoluble risk element oxids.
Słowa kluczowe
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
21
Numer
5
Opis fizyczny
p.1429-1436,fig.,ref.
Twórcy
autor
  • Faculty of Humanities and Natural Sciences, University of Presov in Presov, Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute Presov, Raymanova 1, 080 01 Presov, Slovakia
autor
autor
Bibliografia
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  • 10. Supplement No. 2 to Act No. 220/2004 Safety and exploitation of agricultural soils ect. Body of laws of the Slovak republic, 96, 2290, 2004 [In Slovak].
  • 11. STEINNES E., SJŘBAKK T.E., DONISA C., BRÄNNVALL M.L. Quantification of Pollutant Lead in Forest Soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 69, 1399, 2005.
  • 12. HOVMAND M.F., KEMP K, KYSTOL J., JOHNSEN I., RIIS-NIELSEN T., PACYNA J.M. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition accumulated in rural forest soils of southern. Scandinavia. Environ. Pollut., 155, 537, 2008.
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  • 14. LINKEŠ V., KOBZA J., ŠVEC M., ILKA P., PAVLENDAP, BARANČÍKOVÁ G., MATÚŠKOVÁ L. Monitoring of soils in Slovakia: VÚPÚ Bratislava, pp. 128,1997 [In Slovak].
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  • 16. KOBZA J., BEZÁK P., HRIVŇÁKOVÁ K, MEDVEĎ M., NÁČINIAKOVÁ Z. Criteria for a risky areas identification of contaminated agricultural soils and the method of their protection. Soil Science and Conservation Research Institute (SSCRI), 2008 [In Slovak].
  • 17. ZEIEN H., BRÜMMER G. W. Determination of mobility and Binding forms in soils by sequential extractions. Mitt. Dtsch. Bodenkundl. Gesellsch. 66, 439,1991 [In German].
  • 18. ŠIMEK M. Soil IV. Soil degradation - scientific conference. University of Soutg Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice, 2004 [In Czech].
  • 19. CASTALDI P., MELIS P., SILVETTI M., DEIANA P., GARAUG G. Influence of pea and wheat growth on Pb, Cd, and Zn mobility and soil biological status in a polluted amended soil, Geoderma. 151, 241, 2009.
  • 20. JAMALL M. K, KAZI T. G., ARAIN M. B., AFRIDIH. I., JALBANI N., KANDHRO G. A., SHAH A. O., BAIG J. A. Heavy metal accumulation in different varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in soil amended with domestic sewage sludge. J. Hazard. Mater. 164, 1386, 2009.
  • 21. TÓTH T., TOMÁŠ J., LAZOR P., BAJČAN D., JOMOVÁ K. The transfer of heavy metals from contaminated soils into agricultural plants in High Tatras region. Czech J. Food Sci. 27, 390, 2009.
  • 22. TÓTH T. Determination of fractions and mobility of cadmium and nickel in soils after biosludge application. Acta environmentalica Universitatis Comenianae. 15, 66, 2007 [In Slovak].
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
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Identyfikator YADDA
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