Directionality of drinking passes by bats at water holes: is there cooperation
Treść / Zawartość
In 2000 and 2001, we used an infrared imaging system to film the drinking behaviors of bats at high-use water holes outside Boulder, Colorado. We recorded for two hours on each of four nights at two water hole sites, Stockton Cabin (SC) and Bear Creek (BC), known to be high in bat visitation and small enough to allow filming of the entire hole from a single position. A total of 855 drinking passes was observed: 417 and 438 in SC and BC, respectively. Of these, 814, or 95.2%, of all drinking passes occurred from a particular directional pathway (dominant approach pathway) at each site, with a mere 1.3% occurring from the immediately opposite direction, and 3.5% occurring from a direction convergent with, but not opposite to, the dominant approach path. At both sites, the direction of the dominant approach path was against stream-flow. The strict directionality of drinking passes portrayed at the water’s surface was in stark contrast to activity above the water hole where no directionality of flight could be discerned, even when dozens of bats were circling together. We hypothesize that bats use unidirectional coordination of drinking passes to lessen the chance of collisions and/or to avoid the energetic expense of collision avoidance.
- Barak, Y., and Y. Yom-Tov. 1989. The advantage of group hunting in Kuhl’s bat, Pipistrellus kuhli (Microchiroptera). Journal of Zoology (London), 219: 670-675.
- Bell, G. P. 1980. Habitat use and response to patches of prey by desert insectivorous bats. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 58: 1876-1883.
- Bradbury, J. W., and S. L. Vehrencamp. 1976. Social organization and foraging in emballonurid bats. I. Field studies. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1: 337-381.
- Britton, A. R. C., and G. Jones. 1999. Echolocation behaviour and prey-capture success in foraging bats: laboratory and field experiments on Myotis daubentonii. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 202: 1793-1801.
- Dwyer, P. D. 1970. Foraging behavior of the Australian large-footed Myotis (Chiroptera). Mammalia, 34: 76-80.
- Fenton, M. B., and G. K. Morris. 1976. Opportunistic feeding by desert bats (Myotis spp.). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 54: 526-530.
- Galef, B. G., Jr. 1988. Imitation in animals: history, definition, and interpretation of data from the physiological laboratory. Pp. 3-28, in Social learning: psychological and biological perspectives (T. R. Zentall and B. G. Galef, Jr., eds). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, 368 pp.
- Gaudet, C. L., and M. B. Fenton. 1984. Observational learning in three species of insectivorous bats (Chiroptera). Animal Behavior, 32: 385-388.
- Howell, D. J. 1979. Flock foraging in nectar-feeding bats: advantages to the bats and to the host plants. American Naturalist, 114: 23-49.
- Jones, G. 2000. The ontogeny of behavior in bats: a functional perspective. Pp. 362-392, in Ontogeny, functional ecology, and evolution of bats (R. A. Adams and S. C. Pedersen, eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 398 pp.
- Kerth, G., and B. Konig. 1999. Fission, fusion and nonrandom associations in female Bechstein’s bats (Myotis bechsteinii). Behaviour, 136: 1187-1202.
- Sazima, I., and M. Sazima. 1977. Solitary and group foraging: two flower-visiting patterns of the lesser spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus discolor. Biotropica,9: 213-215.
- Siemers, B. J., P. Stilz, and H.-U. Schnitzler. 2001. The acoustic advantages of hunting at low heights above water: behavioural experiments on the European ‘trawling’ bats Myotis capaccinii, M. dasycneme and M. daubentonii. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 204: 3843-3854.
- Tokeshi, M. 1999. Species coexistence: ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, 464 pp.
- Wilkinson, G. E. 1985. The social organization of the common vampire bat. I. Pattern and cause of association. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 17: 111-121.
- Wilkinson, G. E. 1987. Altruism and co-operation in bats. Pp. 299-323, in Recent advances in the study of bats (P. A. Racey, M. B. Fenton, and J. M. V. Rayner, eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 470 pp.
- Wilkinson, G. E. 1992. Information transfer at evening bat colonies. Animal Behavior, 44: 501-518.
- Wilkinson, G. E. 1995. Information transfer in bats. Pp. 345-361, in Ecology, evolution and behavior of bats (P. A. Racey and S. M. Swift, eds.). Oxford University Press, New York, 421 pp.
rekord w opracowaniu