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2013 | 35 | 06 |
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High tolerance of aluminum in the grass species Cynodon aethiopicus

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Concentrations of aluminum (Al) were determined in leaves of native terrestrial plants, macrophytes and fruit parts (watermelon and tomato) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Al concentrations in water and soil were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Potamogeton thunbergii (macrophyte) and Cynodon aethiopicus (terrestrial grass) had the highest leaf Al concentrations (2 and 1 g kg-1 dw, respectively). Transfer factors (mg kg-1 dw plants/mg kg-1 dw soil) based on total Al concentrations in soil varied from 2 9 10-3 to 0.05 and from 1.9 to 78 based on mobile Al concentrations determined after sequential extraction. Bioconcentration factors (mg kg-1 dw plants/mg L-1 water) varied from 19 to 9.5 9 103 L kg-1 dw. Plants can accumulate high concentrations of Al when growing in neutral pH soils and slightly alkaline lakes in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Controlled experiments showed that C. aethiopicus can accumulate high levels of Al both in root and shoot. Compared to Arabidopsis thaliana, C. aethiopicus was more tolerant to Al exposure as C400 lM AlCl3 was needed to inhibit root growth compared to 200 lM in A. thaliana. After exposing C. aethiopicus and A. thaliana in 800 lM AlCl3, alkaline comet assay indicates significant DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) damage in A. thaliana while C. aethiopicus was unaffected. No significant induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in terms of leaf H2O2 levels, could be observed in C. aethiopicus. C. aethiopicus has mechanisms to suppress both Al-induced ROS and DNA damage, thereby increasing tolerance of the species to high Al concentrations.
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  • Department of Plant and Environmental Science (IPM), Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas, Norway
  • Hawassa University (HU), P.O. Box 5, Hawassa, Ethiopia
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  • Department of Plant and Environmental Science (IPM), Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas, Norway
  • Department of Plant and Environmental Science (IPM), Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas, Norway
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