Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2011 | 61 | 4 |
Tytuł artykułu

Geographical variation in wing pattern in Phengaris (=Maculinea) arion (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): subspecific differentiation or clinal adaptation?

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Socially parasitic and globally threatened Phengaris (=Maculinea) arion (L.) is one of the most intensively investigated insect species in Europe. Although current studies focus on ecology and genetics, the butterfly has also attracted attention because of its morphology. An extremely variable black pattern on the blue background of the wing upperside has resulted in the description of many different forms or even subspecies. We studied the variation of 148 individuals from five regional populations at a latitudinal gradient in Poland: two north-eastern populations, one middle-eastern populations and two southern populations. A proportion of the area covered with marginal strips and spots was measured, and the presence/absence of particular elements was also analyzed. For all except one, the most northern region, we found significant sexual dimorphism, with females being darker than males. Within sexes, the melanization level was higher in the north-east than in the south, and the mid - eastern region showed intermediate characteristics. Differences in colouration overlapped with variation in host ant use, but neither feature corresponded with the available genetic data and therefore clinal variation is a more likely explanation for the observed pattern. Melanization level may be an adaptation to climatic conditions, but it remains unclear which strategy of dorsal basking is applied by P. arion.
Opis fizyczny
  • Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Institute of Biology, University of Bialystok, Swierkowa20B, 15-950 Bialystok, Poland
  • Association for Butterfly Conservation (TOM), Kabacki Dukt 5/101, 02-798 Warsaw, Poland
  • Barbero, F., Bonelli, S., Thomas, J. A., Baletto, E. and K. Schönrogge. 2009. Acoustical mimicry in a predatory social parasite of ants. Journal of Experimental Biology, 212: 4084-4090.
  • Beldade, P. and P. M. Brakefield. 2002. The genetics and evodevo of butterfly wing patterns. Nature Reviews Genetics, 3: 442-452.
  • Bereczki, J. J., Tóth, P., Tóth, A., Bátori, E., Pecsenye, K. and Z. Varga. 2011. The genetic structure of phenologically differentiated Large Blue (Maculinea arion) populations (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in the Carpathian Basin. European Journal of Entomology, 108: 519-527.
  • Brakefield, P. M. and V. French. 1999. Butterfly wings: the evolution of development of colour patterns. BioEssays, 21: 391-401.
  • Buszko, J. and J. Masłowski. 2008. Motyle dzienne Polski [Butterflies of Poland]. Koliber, Nowy Sącz, 274 pp. (In Polish).
  • Casacci, L. P., Witek, M., Barbero, F., Patricelli, D., Solazzo, G., Baletto, E. and S. Bonelli. 2011. Habitat preferences of Maculinea arion and its Myrmica host ants: implications for habitat management in Italian Alps. Journal of Insect Conservation, 15: 103-110.
  • Cheshire, S. 2011. British Butterflies: Species: Species Account - The Large Blue Downloaded at 5 November 2011.
  • Dennis, R. L. H. 1993. Butterflies and climate change. Manchester, Manchester University Press, 302 pp.
  • Dennis, R. L. H. and T. G. Shreeve. 1989. Butterfly wing morphology variation in the British Isles: the influence of climate, behavioural posture and the hostplant-habitat. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society, 38: 323-348.
  • Ellers, J. and C. L. Boggs. 2004. Functional ecological implications of intraspecific differences in wing melanisation in Colias butterflies. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 82: 79-87.
  • Fordyce, J. A., Nice, C. C., Forister, M. L. and A. M. Shapiro. 2002. The significance of wing pattern diversity in the Lycaenidae: mate discrimination by two recently diverged species. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 15: 871-879.
  • Fric, Z., Konvička, M. and J. Zrzavý. 2004. Red, black or black, white? Phylogeny the Araschnia butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and evolution of seasonal polyphenism. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 17: 265-278.
  • Fric, Z., Wahlberg, N., Pech, P. and J. Zrzavý. 2007. Phylogeny and classification of the Phengaris-Maculinea clade (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): total evidence and phylogenetic species concepts. Systematic Entomology, 32: 558-567.
  • Guppy, C. S. 1986. The adaptive significance of alpine melanism in the butterfly Parnassius phoebus F. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Oecologia, 70: 205-213.
  • Karl, I., Geister, T. L. and K. Fisher. 2009. Intraspecific variation in wing and pupal melanization in copper butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 98: 301-312.
  • Kingsolver, J. G. 1987. Evolution and coadaptation of thermoregulatory behavior and wing pattern in pierid butterflies. Evolution, 41: 472-490.
  • Krzywicki, M. 1967. Fauna Papilionoidea i Hesperioidea Puszczy Białowieskiej [Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea of the Białowieża Forest). Annales Zoologici, 24: 1-223. (In Polish).
  • Mouquet, N., Thomas, J. A., Eimes, G. W., Clarke, R. T. and M. E. Hochberg. 2005. Population dynamics and conservation of a specialized predator: a case study of Maculinea arion. Ecological Monographs, 75: 525-542.
  • New, T. R. 1993. Conservation biology of Lycaenidae (butterflies). International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland, 173 pp.
  • Nowicki, P., Witek, M., Skórka, P., Settele J. and M. Woyciechowski. 2005. Population ecology of the endangered butterflies Maculinea teleius and M. nausithous and the implications for conservation. Population Ecology, 47: 193-202.
  • Nylin, S. 2009. Gradients in butterfly biology, pp. 198-216. In: J. Settele, T. G. Shreeve, M. Konvička, and H. Van Dyck (eds.), Ecology of Butterflies in Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Patricelli, D., Barbero, F., La Morgia, V., Casacci, L. P., Witek, M., Balletto, E. and S. Bonelli. 2011. To lay or not to lay: oviposition of Maculinea arion in relation to Myrmica ant presence and host plant phenology. Animal Behaviour, 82: 791-799.
  • Pech, P., Fric, Z., Konvička, M. and J. Zravý. 2004. Phylogeny of Maculinea blues (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) based on morphological and ecological characters: evolution of parasitic myrmecophily. Cladistics, 20: 362-375.
  • Razowski, J. 2000. (ed.) Flora i fauna Pienin [Flora and fauna of the Pieniny Mts]. Monografie Pienińskie No 1, 333 pp. (In Polish).
  • Rutkowski, R., Sielezniew, M. and A. Szostak. 2009. Contrasting levels of polymorphism in cross-amplified microsatellites in two endangered xerothermophilous, obligatorily myrmecophilous, butterflies of the genus Phengaris (Maculinea) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). European Journal of Entomology, 106: 457-469.
  • Settele, J. and E. Kühn. 2009. Insect conservation. Science, 325: 41-42.
  • Settele, J., Kühn, E. and J. A. Thomas, (eds.) 2005. Studies on the Ecology and Conservation of Butterflies in Europe. Vol. 2: Species ecology along a European Gradient: Maculinea Butterflies as a Model. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia - Moscow, 289 pp.
  • Shreeve, T., Konvička, M. and H. Van Dyck. 2009. Functional significance of butterfly wing morphology variation, pp. 171-188. In: J. Settele, T. G. Shreeve, M. Konvička and H. Van Dyck (eds.), Ecology of Butterflies in Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Sielezniew, M. and R. Rutkowski. 2011. Population isolation rather than ecological variation explains the genetic structure of endangered myrmecophilous butterfly Phengaris (=Maculinea) arion. Journal of Insect Conservation, doi: 10.1007/s10841-011-9392-9
  • Sielezniew, M., Buszko, J. and A. M. Stankiewicz. 2005. Maculinea arion in Poland: distribution, ecology and prospects of conservation, pp. 231-233. In: J. Settele, E. Kühn and J. A. Thomas (eds.) Studies on the ecology and conservation of butterflies in Europe, Vol 2. Species ecology along a European Gradient: Maculinea Butterflies as a Model. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia-Moscow.
  • Sielezniew, M., Dziekańska, I. and A. M. Stankiewicz- Fiedurek. 2010a. Multiple host-ant use by the predatory social parasite Phengaris (=Maculinea) arion (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). Journal of Insect Conservation, 14: 141-149.
  • Sielezniew, M., Patricelli, D., Dziekańska, I., Barbero, F., Bonelli, S., Casacci, L. P., Witek, M. and E. Baletto. 2010b. The first record of Myrmica lonae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as a host of socially parasitic Large Blue butterfly Phengaris (Maculinea) arion (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Sociobiology, 56: 465-475.
  • Sielezniew, M., Włostowski, M. and I. Dziekańska. 2010c. Myrmica schencki (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as the primary host of Phengaris (Maculinea) arion (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) at heathlands in eastern Poland. Sociobiology, 55: 95-106.
  • Spitzer, L., Benes, J., Dandova, J., Jaskova V. and M. Konvicka. 2009. The Large Blue butterfly, Phengaris [Maculinea] arion, as a conservation umbrella on a landscape scale: The case of the Czech Carpathians. Ecological Indicators, 9: 1056-1063.
  • Thomas, J. A. 1980. Why did the Large Blue become extinct in Britain? Oryx, 15: 243-247.
  • Thomas, J. A. 1995. The ecology and conservation of Maculinea arion and other European species of large blue butterfly, pp. 180-197. In: Pullin A.S. (ed.) Ecology and Conservation of Butterflies. Chapman and Hall, London.
  • Thomas, J. A. 1996. Maculinea arion (Linnaeus, 1758), pp. 157-163. In: P. J. Van Helsdingen, L. Willemse and M. C. D. Speight (eds.), Background information on invertebrates of the Habitats Directive and the Bern Convention. Part I - Crustacea, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera - Nature and Environment No 79 - Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg.
  • Thomas, J. A. & R. Lewington. 2010. The Butterflies of Great Britain & Ireland. British Wildlife Publishing, Milton on Stour, 288 pp.
  • Thomas, J. A. and J. Settele. 2004. Butterfly mimics of ants. Nature, 432: 283-284.
  • Thomas, J. A., Simcox, D. J. and R. T. Clarke. 2009. Successful conservation of a threatened Maculinea butterfly. Science, 325: 80-83.
  • Tolman, T. and R. Lewington. 2009. Collins Butterfly Guide: The Most Complete Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe. Harper Collins, London, 400 pp.
  • Ugelvig, L. V., Nielsen, P. S., Boomsma, J. J. and D. R. Nash. 2011. Reconstructing eight decades of genetic variation in an isolated Danish population of the large blue butterfly Maculinea arion. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11: 201.
  • Väisänen, R., Heliövaara, K. and P. Somerma. 1994. Wing variation of Maculinea arion (Linnaeus) in Finland (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). Entomologica Fennica, 5: 139-146.
  • Van Dyck, H. and J. Windig. 2009. Adaptation and plasticity in butterflies: the interplay of genes and environment, pp. 159-170. In: J. Settele, T. G. Shreeve, M. Konvička and H. Van Dyck (eds.), Ecology of Butterflies in Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Van Swaay, C., Cuttelod, A., Collins, S., Maes, D., López Munguira, M., Šašić, M., Settele, J., Verovnik, R., Verstrael, T., Warren, M., Wiemers, M. and I. Wynhoff. 2010. European Red List of European Butterflies. Publication Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 47 pp.
  • Vane-Wright, R. I., Raheem, D. C., Cieslak, A. and A. P. Vogler. 1999. Evolution of the mimetic African swallowtail butterfly Papilio dardanus: molecular data confirm relationships with P. phorcas and P. constantinus. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 66: 215-229.
  • Varga, Z. 2003. Post-glacial dispersal strategies of Orthoptera and Lepidoptera in Europe and in the Carpathian basin Proc. 13th Int. Coll. EIS,: pp. 93-105.
  • Verity, R. 1940-1953. Le farfalle diurne d'Italia. [Butterflies of Italy] Vols. 1-5. Firenze: Marzocco. (In Italian).
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.