PL EN


Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2011 | 71 | 1 |
Tytuł artykułu

Opioid peptides in peripheral pain control

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Opioids have a long history of therapeutic use as a remedy for various pain states ranging from mild acute nociceptive pain to unbearable chronic advanced or end-stage disease pain. Analgesia produced by classical opioids is mediated extensively by binding to opioid receptors located in the brain or the spinal cord. Nevertheless, opioid receptors are also expressed outside the CNS in the periphery and may become valuable assets in eliciting analgesia devoid of shortcomings typical for the activation of their central counterparts. The discovery of endogenous opioid peptides that participate in the formation, transmission, modulation and perception of pain signals offers numerous opportunities for the development of new analgesics. Novel peptidic opioid receptor analogs, which show limited access through the blood brain barrier may support pain therapy requiring prolonged use of opioid drugs.
Słowa kluczowe
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
71
Numer
1
Opis fizyczny
p.129-138,ref.
Twórcy
autor
  • Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
autor
  • Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
Bibliografia
  • Antonijevic I, Mousa SA, Schäfer M, Stein C (1995) Perineurial defect and peripheral opioid analgesia in inflammation. J Neurosci 15: 165-172.
  • Auvynet C, Seddiki N, Dunia I, Nicolas P, Amiche M, Lacombe C (2006) Post-translational amino acid racemization in the frog skin peptide deltorphin I in the secre­tion granules of cutaneous serous glands. Eur J Cell Biol. 85: 25-34.
  • Baamonde A, Lastra A, Juarez L, Garcia-Suarez O, Meana A, Hidalgo A, Menendez L (2006) Endogenous beta-en- dorphin induces thermal analgesia at the initial stages of a murine osteosarcoma. Peptides 27: 2778-2785.
  • Barber A, Bartoszyk GD, Bender HM, Gottschlich R, Greiner HE, Harting J, Mauler F, Minck KO, Murray RD, Simon M (1994) A pharmacological profile of the novel, peripherally-selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, EMD 61753. Br J Pharmacol 113: 1317-1327.
  • Barra D, Mignogna G, Simmaco M, Pucci P, Severini C, Falconieri-Erspamer G, Negri L, Erspamer V (1994) [D-Leu2]deltorphin, a 17 amino acid opioid peptide from the skin of the Brazilian hylid frog, Phyllomedusa bur- meisteri. Peptides 15: 199-202.
  • Ballet S, Conrath M, Fischer J, Kaneko T, Hamon M, Cesselin F (2003) Expression and G-protein coupling of mu-opioid receptors in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of polyarthritic rats. Neuropeptides 37: 211-219.
  • Becerra L, Morris S, Bazes S, Gostic R, Sherman S, Gostic J, Pendse G, Moulton E, Scrivani S, Keith D, Chizh B, Borsook D (2006) Trigeminal neuropathic pain alters responses in CNS circuits to mechanical (brush) and ther­mal (cold and heat) stimuli. J Neurosci 26: 10646-10657.
  • Bedini A,, Baiula M, Gentilucci L, Tolomelli A, De Marco R, Spampinato S (2010) Peripheral antinociceptive effects of the cyclic endomorphin-1 analog c[YpwFG] in a mouse visceral pain model. Peptides 31: 2135-2140.
  • Bennett GJ, Xie YK (1988) A peripheral mononeuropathy in rat that produces disorders of pain sensation like those seen in man. Pain 33: 87-107.
  • Bouvier M (2001) Oligomerization of G-protein-coupled trans­mitter n, a, k, receptors. Nat Rev Neurosci 2: 274-286.
  • Broccardo M, Erspamer V, Falconieri Erspamer G, Improta G, Linari G, Melchiorri P, Montecucchi PC (1981) Pharmacological data on dermorphins, a new class of potent opioid peptides from amphibian skin. Br J Pharmacol 73: 625-631.
  • Butcher EC, Picker LJ (1996) Lymphocyte homing and homeostasis. Science 272: 60-66.
  • Cabot PJ (2001) Immune-derived opioids and peripheral anti- nociception. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 28: 230-232.
  • Chang KJ, Lillian A, Hazum E , Cuatrecasas P, Chang JK (1981) Morphiceptin (NH4-tyr-Pro-Phe-Pro-COHN2): a potent and specific agonist for morphine (mu) receptors. Science 212: 75-77.
  • Chang KJ, Wei ET, Killian A, Chang JK (1983) Potent mor­phiceptin analogs: structure activity relationships and mor­phine-like activities. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 227: 403-408.
  • Chen Y, Mestek A, Liu J, Hurley JA, Yu L (1993) Molecular cloning and functional expression of a ^-opioid receptor from rat brain. Mol Pharmacol 44: 8-12.
  • Decosterd I, Woolf CJ (2000) Spared nerve injury: an animal model of persistent peripheral neuropathic pain. Pain 87: 149-158.
  • Delvaux M, Beck A, Jacob J, Bouzamondo H, Weber FT, Frexinos J (2004) Effect of asimadoline, a kappa opioid agonist, on pain induced by colonic distension in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Therap 20: 237-246.
  • Donzanti BA, Althaus JS, Payson MM, Von Voigtlander PF (1992) Kappa agonist-induced reduction in dopamine release: site of action and tolerance. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 78: 193-210.
  • Evans CJ, Keith DE, Morrison H, Magendzo K, Edwards RH (1992) cloning of a delta opioid receptor by func­tional expression. Science 258: 1952-1955.
  • Gach K, do-Rego JC, Fichna J, Storr M, Delbro D, Toth G, Janecka A (2010) Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel peripherally active morphiceptin analogs. Peptides 31: 1617-1624.
  • Gilbert PE, Martin WR (1976) The effects of morphine- and naltorphine-like drugs in the nondependent morphine- dependent and cyclazocine-dependent chronic spinal dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 198: 66-82.
  • Glaser T, Hubner K, de Castiglione R, Hamprecht B (1981) Dermorphins, opioid peptides from amphibian skin, act on opioid receptors of mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid cells. J Neurochem 37: 1613-1617.
  • Gupta A, Décaillot FM, Devi LA (2006) Targeting opioid receptor heterodimers: strategies for screening and drug development. AAPS J 8: E153-E159.
  • HassanAH, Ableitner A, Stein C, Herz A (1993) Inflammation of the rat paw enhances axonal transport of opioid recep­tors in the sciatic nerve and increases their density in the inflamed tissue. Neurosci 55: 185-195.
  • Hau VS, Huber JD, Campos CR, Lipkowski AW, Misicka A, Davis TP (2002) Effect of guanidino modification and proline substitution on the in vitro stability and blood- brain barrier permeability of endomorphin II. J Pharm Sci 91: 2140-2149.
  • Herz A (1998) Opioid reward mechanisms: a key role in drug abuse? Can J Physiol Pharmacol 76: 252-258.
  • Heurich M, Mousa SA, Lenzner M, Morciniec P, Kopf A,Welte, M, Stein C (2007) Influence of pain treatmentby epidural fentanyl and bupivacaine on homing of opioid- containing leukocytes to surgical wounds. Brain Behav Immun 21: 544-552.
  • Inturrisi CE (2002) Clinical pharmacology of opioids for pain. Clin J Pain 18: S3-S13.
  • Ji RR, Zhang Q, Law PY, Low HH, Elde R, Hokfelt T (1995) Expression of mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptor-like immunoreactivities in rat dorsal root ganglia after carra- geenan-induced inflammation. J Neurosci 15: 8156-8166.
  • Kabli N, Cahill CM (2007) Anti-allodynic effects of peripheral delta opioid receptors in neuropathic pain. Pain 127: 84-93.
  • Kim SH, Chung JM (1992) An experimental model for peripheral neuropathy produced by segmental spinal nerve ligation in the rat. Pain 50: 355-363.
  • Knapp RJ, Malatynska E, Collins N, Fang L, Wang JY, Hruby VJ, Roeske WR, Yamamura HI (1995) Molecular biology and pharmacology of cloned opioid receptors. Faseb J 9: 516-525.
  • Labuz D, Przewlocki R, Przewlocka B (2002) Cross- tolerance between the different mu-opioid receptor ago­nists endomorphin-1, endomorphin-2 and morphine at the spinal level in the rat, Neurosci Lett 334: 127-130.
  • Lehner M, Wislowska-Stanek A, Maciejak P, Szyndler J, Sobolewska A, Krzascik P, Plaznik A (2010) The relation­ship between pain sensitivity and conditioned fear response in rats. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 70: 56-66.
  • Levac B, O'Dowdand BF, George SR (2002) Oligomerization of opioid receptors: generation of novel signaling units. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2: 76-81.
  • Li S, Zhu J, Chen G, Chen YW, Deriel JK, Ashby B, Liu- Chen LY (1993) Molecular cloning and expression of a rat k opioid receptor. Biochem J 295: 629-633.
  • Lipkowski AW, Carr DB (2002) Rethinking opioid equiva­lence. Pain-Clinical Updates 10: 1-7.
  • Lord JAH, Waterfield AA, Hughes J, Kosterlitz HW (1997) Endogenous opioid peptides: multiple agonists and recep­tors. Nature 267: 495-499.
  • Machelska H, Cabot PJ, Mousa SA, Zhang Q, Stein C (1998) Pain control in inflammation governed by selec- tins. Nat Med 4: 1425-1428.
  • Machelska H, Pfluger M, Weber W, Piranvisseh-Volk M, Daubert JD, Dehaven R, Stein C (1999). Peripheral effects of the kappa-opioid agonist EMD 61753 on pain and inflammation in rats and humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 290: 354-361.
  • Machelska H, Schopohl JK, Mousa SA, Labuz D, Schäfer M, Stein C (2003) Different mechanisms of intrinsic pain inhibition in early and late inflammation. J Neuroimmunol 141: 30-39.
  • Maekawa K, Minami M, Masuda T, Satoh M (1996) Expression of mu- and kappa-, but not delta-, opioid receptor mRNAs is enhanced in the spinal dorsal horn of the arthritic rats. Pain 64: 365-371.
  • Martin WJ, Stewart LA, Tarpley JW (2003) Animal models of neuropathic pain. Method Mol Med 84: 233-242.
  • Menendez L, Lastra A, Fresno MF, Llames S, Meana A, Hidalgo A, Baamonde A (2003) Initial thermal heat hypoalgesia and delayed hyperalgesia in a murine model of bone cancer pain. Brain Res 969: 102-109.
  • Meng F, Xie GX, Thompson RC, Mansour A, Goldstein A, Watson SJ, Akil H (1993) Cloning and pharmacological characterization of a rat kappa opioid receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 9954-9958.
  • Moller AT, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Rasmussen AK, Sommer C, Hasholt L, Bach FW, Kolvraa S, Jensen TS (2006) Small- fibre neuropathy in female Fabry patients: reduced allo- dynia and skin blood flow after topical capsaicin. J Peripher Nerv Syst 11: 119-125.
  • Mousa SA, Zhang Q, Sitte N, Ji RR, Stein C (2001) ß-Endorphin-containing memory-cells and m-opioid receptors undergo transport to peripheral inflamed tissue. J Neuroimmunol 115: 71-78.
  • Negri L, Melchiorri P, Lattanzi R (2000) Pharmacology of amphibian opiate peptides. Peptides. 21: 1639-1647.
  • Obara I, Przewlocki R, B Przewlocka B (2004) Local peripheral effects of m-opioid receptor agonists in neuro­pathic pain in rats. Neurosci Lett 360: 85-89.
  • Obara I, Parkitna JR, Korostynski M, Makuch W, Kaminska D, Przewlocka B, Przewlocki R (2009) Local peripheral opioid effects and expression of opioid genes in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia in neuropathic and inflam­matory pain. Pain 141: 283-291.
  • Obara I, Gunduz Cinar O, Starowicz K, Benyhe S, Borsodi A, Przewlocka B (2010) Agonist-dependent attenuation of mu-opioid receptor-mediated G-protein activation in the dorsal root ganglia of neuropathic rats. J Neural Transm. 117: 421-429.
  • Olsson Y (1990) Microenvironment of the peripheral ner­vous system under normal and pathological conditions. Crit Rev Neurobiol 5: 265-311.
  • Pande AC, Pyke RE, Greiner M, Wideman GL, Benjamin R, Pierce MW (1996) Analgesic efficacy of enadoline versus placebo or morphine in postsurgical pain. Clin Neuropharmacol 19: 451-456.
  • Patel MB, Patel CN, Rajashekara V, Yoburn BC (2002) Opioid agonists differentially regulate mu-opioid recep­tors and trafficking proteins in vivo. Mol Pharmacol 62: 1464-1470.
  • Parikh D, Hamid A, Friedman TC, Nguyen K, Tseng A, Marquez P, Lutfy K (2011) Stress-induced analgesia and endogenous opioid peptides: the importance of stress duration. Eur J Pharmacol 650: 563-567.
  • Perlikowska R, Fichna J, Janecka A (2009) Endomorphins- endogenous ligands of the mu-opioid receptor. Postepy Biochem 55: 388-394.
  • Pert CB, Snyder SH (1973) Opiate receptor: demonstration in nervous tissue. Science 179: 1011-1014.
  • Petrovic P, Pleger B, Seymour B, Klöppel S, De Martino B, Critchley H, Dolan RJ (2008) Blocking central opiate function modulates hedonic impact and anterior cingulate response to rewards and losses. J Neurosci 28: 10509­10516.
  • Peyron R, García-Larrea L, Grégoire MC, Convers P, Lavenne F, Veyre L, Froment JC, Mauguiere F, Michel D, Laurent B (1998) Allodynia after lateral-medullary (Wallenberg) infarct. A PET study. Brain 121: 345-356.
  • Peyron R, Schneider F, Faillenot I, Convers P, Barral FG, Garcia-Larrea L, Laurent MD (2004) An fMRI study of cortical representation of mechanical allodynia in patients with neuropathic pain. Neurology 63: 1838-1846.
  • Philippe D, Chakass D, Thuru X, Zerbib P, Tsicopoulos A, Geboes K, Bulois P, Breisse M, Vorng H, Gay J, Colombel JF, Desreumaux P, Chamaillard M (2004) Mu opioid receptor expression is increased in inflammatory bowel diseases: implications for homeostatic intestinal inflam­mation. Gut 55: 815-23.
  • Pol O, Puig MM (2004) Expression of opioid receptors dur­ing peripheral inflammation. Curr Top Med Chem 4: 51-61.
  • Pol O, Murtra P, Caracuel L, Valverde O, Puig MM, Maldonado R (2006) Expression of opioid receptors and c-fos in CB1 knockout mice exposed to neuropathic pain. Neuropharmacol 50: 123-132.
  • Puehler W, Zöllner C, Brack A, Shaqura MA, Krause H, Schäfer M, Stein C (2004) Rapid upregulation of mu opioid receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia in response to peripheral inflammation depends on neuronal conduc­tion. Neurosci 129: 473-479.
  • Puehler W, Rittner HL, Mousa SA, Brack A, Krause H, Stein C, Schafer M (2006) Interleukin-1 beta contributes to the upregulation of kappa opioid receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia in response to peripheral inflammation. Neurosci 141: 989-998.
  • Rasenick MM, Childers SR (1989) Modification of Gs-stimulated adenylate cyclase in brain membranes by low pH pretreatment: correlation with altered guanine nucleotide exchange. J Neurochem 53: 219-225.
  • Rashid MH, Inoue M, Toda K, Ueda H (2004) Loss of peripheral morphine analgesia contributes to the reduced effectiveness of systemic morphine in neuropathic pain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 309: 380-387.
  • Rau KK, Caudle RM, Cooper BY, Johnson RD (2005) Diverse immunocytochemical expression of opioid recep­tors in electrophysiological^ defined cells of rat dorsal root ganglia. J Chem Neuroanat 29: 255-264.
  • Reddy PL, Bhargava HN (1996) Effect of low pH treatment on opioid peptides binding to their receptors and func­tional coupling of G-proteins to adenylyl cyclase in the rat spinal cord. Peptides 17: 625-628.
  • Ronai AZ, Kiraly K, Szebeni A, Szemenyei E, Prohaszka Z, Darula Z, Toth G, Till I, Szalay B, Kato E, Barna I (2009) Immunoreactive endomorphin 2 is generated extracellu- larly in rat isolated L4,5 dorsal root ganglia by DPP-IV. Regul Pept 157: 1-2.
  • Rüthrich HL, Grecksch G, Schmidt R, Neubert K (1992) Linear and cyclic beta casomorphin analogues with high analgesic activity. Peptides 13: 483-485.
  • Rios CD, Jordan BA, Gomes I, Devi LA (2001) G-protein receptor dimerization: Modulation of receptor function. Pharmacol Ther 92: 71-87.
  • Schäfer M, Imai Y, Uhl GR, Stein C (1995) Inflammation enhances peripheral ^-opioid analgesia, but not ^-opioid receptor transcription in dorsal root ganglia. Eur J Pharmacol 279: 165-169.
  • Schmitt TK, Mousa SA, Brack A, Schmidt DK, Rittner HL, Welte M, Schäfer M, Stein C (2003) Modulation of peripheral endogenous opioid analgesia by central affer­ent blockade. Anesthesiology 98: 195-202.
  • Seltzer Z, Dubner R, Shir Y (1990) A novel behavioral model ofneuropathic pain disorders produced in rats by partial sciatic nerve injury. Pain 43: 205-218.
  • Shaqura MA, Zöllner C, Mousa SA, Stein C, and Schäfer M (2004) Characterization of ^ opioid receptor binding and G-protein coupling in rat hypothalamus, spinal cord and primary afferent neurons during inflammatory pain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 308: 712-718.
  • Shen H, Aeschlimann A, Reisch N, Gay RE, Simmen BR, Michel BA, Gay S, Sprott H (2005) Kappa and delta opioid receptors are expressed but down-regulated in fibroblast-like synoviocytes of patients with rheuma­toid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 52: 1402-1410.
  • Shook JE, Lemcke PK, Gehrig CA, Hruby VJ, Burks TF (1989) Antidiarrheal properties of supraspinal mu and delta and peripheral mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors: inhibition of diarrhea without constipation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 249: 83-90.
  • Silbert BS, Lipkowski AW, Cepeda MS, Szyfelbein SK, Osgood PF, Carr DB (1991) Analgesic activity of a novel bivalent opioid peptide compared to morphine via differ­ent routes of administration. Agent Action 33: 382-387.
  • Simon EJ, Hiller JM, Edelman I (1973) Stereospecific bind­ing of the potent narcotic analgesic [H3]etorphine to rat brain homogenate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70: 1947­1949.
  • Sinha B, Cao Z, Murray TF, Aldrich JV (2009) Discovery of dermorphin-based affinity labels with subnanomolar affinity for mu opioid receptors. J Med Chem 52: 7372­7375.
  • Stein C, Comisel K, Haimerl E, Yassouridis A, Lehrberger K, Herz A, Peter K (1991) Analgesic effect of intraarticular morphine after arthroscopic knee surgery. N Engl J Med 325: 1123-1126.
  • Stein C, Hassan AH, Lehrberger K, Giefing J, Yassouridis A (1993) Local analgesic effect of endogenous opioid pep­tides. Lancet 342: 321-324.
  • Stoll G, Hartung HP (1992) The role of macrophages in degeneration and immune mediated demyelination of the peripheral nervous system. Adv Neuroimmunol 2: 163­179.
  • Sun Z, Cade R (2003) Findings in normal rats following administration of gliadorphin-7 (GD-7). Peptides 24: 321-323.
  • Sung B, Loh HH, Wei L (2000) Association of kappa opioid receptor mRNA upregulation in dorsal root ganglia with mechanical allodynia in mice following nerve injury. Neurosci Lett 291: 163-166.
  • Szarka LA, Camilleri M, Burton D, Fox JC, McKinzie S, Stanislav T, Simonson J, Sullivan N, Zinsmeister AR (2007) Efficacy of on-demand asimadoline, a peripheral kappa-opioid agonist, in females with irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 5: 1268-1275.
  • Takahashi M, Fukunaga H, Kaneto H, Fukudome S, Yoshikawa M (2000) Behavioral and pharmacological studies on gluten exorphin A5, a newly isolated bioactive food protein fragment, in mice. Jpn J Pharmacol 84: 259-265.
  • Tang JL, Lipkowski AW, Specter S (2008) Molecular assess­ment of the potential combination therapy of cytokines with biphalin and AZT for Friend leukemia virus infec­tion in vitro. Pharmacol Rep 60: 190-198.
  • Taguchi R, Taguchi T, Kitakoji H (2010) Involvement of peripheral opioid receptors in electroacupuncture analge­sia for carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Brain Res 1355: 97-103.
  • Terenius L (1973) Characteristics of the "receptor" for nar­cotic analgesics in synaptic plasma membrane fraction from rat brain. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 33: 377-384.
  • Terskiy A, Wannemacher KM, Yadav PN, Tsai M, Tian B, Howells RD (2007) Search of the human proteome for endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 precursor proteins. Life Sci 81:1593-1601.
  • Thompson RC, Mansour A, Akil H, Watson SJ (1993) Cloning and pharmacological characterization of a rat f opioid receptor. Neuron 11: 903-913.
  • Truong W, Cheng C, Xu QG, Li XQ, Zochodne DW (2003) Mu opioid receptors and analgesia at the site of a periph­eral nerve injury. Ann Neurol 53: 366-375.
  • Vanderah TW, Largent-Milnes T, Lai J, Porreca F, Houghten RA, Menzaghi F, Wisniewski K, Stalewski J, Sueiras-Diaz J, Galyean R, Schteingart C, Junien JL, Trojnar J, Rivière PJM (2008) Novel D-amino acid tetrapeptides produce potent antinociception by selectively acting at peripheral K-opioid receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 583: 62-72.
  • Vogel D, Schmidt R, Hartung K, Demuth HU, Chung NN, Schiller PW (1996) Cyclic morphiceptin analogs: cyclization studies and opioid activities in vitro. Int J Pept Protein Res 48: 495-502.
  • Walczak JS, Pichette V, Leblond F, Desbiens K, Beaulieu P (2005) Behavioral, pharmacological and molecular char­acterization of the saphenous nerve partial ligation: a new model of neuropathic pain. Neurosci 132: 1093-1102.
  • Wanga HB, Zhaoa B, Zhonga YQ, Lia KC, Lib ZY, , Wang Q, , Lua YJ, Zhang ZN, Hea SQ, Zheng HC, Wud SX, Hokfelte GM, Baob L, Zhanga X (2010) Coexpression of ô- and ^-opioid receptors in nociceptive sensory neurons. PNAS 29: 13117-13122.
  • Wei LN, Law PY, Loh HH (2004) Post-transcriptional regu­lation of opioid receptors in the nervous system. Front Biosci 9: 1665-1679.
  • Wei LN, Loh HH (2011) Transcriptional and Epigenetic Regulation of Opioid Receptor Genes-Present and Future. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 51: 75-97.
  • Witting N, Kupers RC, Svensson P, Jensen TS (2006) A PET activation study of brush-evoked allodynia in patients with nerve injury pain. Pain 120: 145-54.
  • Yamamoto J, Kawamata T, Niiyama Y, Omote K, Namiki A (2008) Down-regulation of mu opioid receptor expres­sion within distinct subpopulations of dorsal root gangli­on neurons in a murine model of bone cancer pain. Neurosci 151: 843-53.
  • Yasuda K, Raynor K, Kong H, Breder CD, Takeda J, Reisine T, Bell GI (1993). Cloning and functional comparison of n and y opioid receptors from mouse brain. Proceedings Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 6736- 6740.
  • Zhang Q, Schäfer M, Elde R, Stein C (1998) Effects of neuro­toxins and hindpaw inflammation on opioid receptor immu- noreactivities in dorsal root ganglia. Neurosci 85: 281-291.
  • Zöllner C, Shaqura MA, Bopaiah CP, Mousa S, Stein C, and Schäfer M (2003) Painful inflammation-induced increase in ^-opioid receptor binding and G-protein coupling in primary afferent neurons. Mol Pharmacol 64: 202-210.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.agro-14ba29da-1e31-4259-b940-0c7cdca454a6
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.