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2011 | 18 |
Tytuł artykułu

Influence of environmental changes on physiology and development of polar vascular plant

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Polar vascular plants native to the Arctic and the Antarctic geobotanical zone have been growing and reproducing effectively under difficult environmental conditions, colonizing frozen ground areas formerly covered by ice. Our macroscopic observations and microscopic studies conducted by means of a light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) concerning the anatomical and ultrastructural observations of vegetative and generative tissue in Cerastium arcticum, Colobanthus quitensis, Silene involucrata, plants from Caryophyllaceae and Deschampsia antarctica, Poa annua and Poa arctica, from Poaceae family. In the studies, special attention was paid to plants coming from diversity habitats where stress factors operated with clearly different intensity. In all examinations plants, differences in anatomy were considerable. In Deschampsia antarctica the adaxial epidermis of hairgrass leaves from a humid microhabitat, bulliform cells differentiated. Mesophyll was composed of cells of irregular shapes and resembled aerenchyma. The ultrastructural observations of mesophyll in all plants showed tight adherence of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, surface deformations of these organelles and formation of characteristic outgrowths and pocket concavities filled with cytoplasm with vesicles and organelles by chloroplasts. In reproduction biology of examined Caryophyllaceae and Poaceae plants growing in natural conditions, in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, and in a greenhouse in Olsztyn showed that this plant develops two types of bisexual flowers. Almost all ovules developed and formed seeds with a completely differentiated embryo both under natural conditions in the Arctic and the Antarctic and in a greenhouse in Olsztyn.
Opis fizyczny
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