Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2015 | 61 | 4 |

Tytuł artykułu

Parasites and fungi as risk factors for human and animal health

Treść / Zawartość

Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



Recent literature data suggests that parasitic and fungal diseases, which pose a threat to both human and animal health, remain a clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Attention is increasingly paid to the role played by natural microbiota in maintaining homeostasis in humans. A particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of manipulating the human microbiota (permanent, transient, pathogenic) and macrobiota (e.g., Trichuris suis) to support the treatment of selected diseases such as Crohn’s disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer. Emphasis is placed on important medical species whose infections not only impair health but can also be life threatening, such as Plasmodium falciparum, Echinococcus multilocularis and Baylisascaris procyonis, which expand into areas which have so far been uninhabited. This article also presents the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic parasitoses imported from the tropics, which spread across large groups of people through human-to-human transmission (Enterobius vermicularis, Sarcoptes scabiei). It also discusses the problem of environmentally-conditioned parasitoses, particularly their etiological factors associated with food contaminated with invasive forms (Trichinella sp., Toxoplasma gondii). The analysis also concerns the presence of developmental forms of geohelminths (Toxocara sp.) and ectoparasites (ticks), which are vectors of serious human diseases (Lyme borreliosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis), in the environment. Mycological topics contains rare cases of mycoses environmentally conditioned (CNS aspergillosis) and transmissions of these pathogens in a population of hospitalized individuals, as well as seeking new methods used to treat mycoses.

Słowa kluczowe








Opis fizyczny



  • Department of Biology and Medical Parasitology, Medical University of Lodz, Hallera Sq.1, 90-647 Lodz, Poland
  • Department of Diagnostics and Treatment of Parasitic Diseases and Mycoses, Medical University of Lodz, Hallera Sq.1, 90-647 Lodz, Poland


  • [1] WHO Ebola Response Team. 2014. Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa – The first 9 months of the epidemic and forward projections. The New England Journal of Medicine 371: 1481-1495. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1411100.
  • [2] WHO. 2015. Ebola Situation Report. 18 October 2015. ebolasitrep_18Nov2015_eng.pdf?ua=1.
  • [3] Adams J.B., Johansen L.J., Powell L.D., Quig D., Rubin R.A. 2011. Gastrointestinal flora and gastrointestinal status in children with autism – comparisons to typical children and correlation with autism severity. BMC Gastroenterology 11: 22. doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-22.
  • [4] Shakov R., Salazar R.S., Kagunye S.K., Baddoura W.J., DeBari V.A. 2011. Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection in the acute care hospital setting. American Journal of Infection Control 39:194-198.
  • [5] Zhang Y.J., Li S., Gan R.Y., Zhou T., Xu D.P., Li H.B. 2015. Impacts of gut bacteria on human health and diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16: 7493-7519.
  • [6] Human Microbiome Project Consortium. 2012. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature 486: 207-214. doi:10.1038/nature11234.
  • [7] Aagaard K., Ma J., Antony K.M., Ganu R., Petrosino J., Versalovic J. 2014. The placenta harbors a unique microbiome. Science Translational Medicine 6: 237-265.
  • [8] Rudzki Ł., Szulc A. 2013. Influence of intestinal microbiota on the central nervous system and its potential in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Farmakoterapia w Psychiatrii i Neurologii 2: 69-77.
  • [9] Cryan J.F., O’Mahony S.M. 2011. The microbiomegut- brain axis: from bowel to behavior. Neurogastroenterology and motility: the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society 23: 187-92. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2010. 01664.x.
  • [10] Sharon G., Garg N., Debelius J., Knight R., Dorrestein P.C., Mazmaniana S.K. 2014. Specialized metabolites from the microbiome in health and disease. Cell Metabolism 20: 719-730. doi:10.1016 /j.cmet.2014.10.016.
  • [11] Góralska K. 2014. Interactions between potentially pathogenic fungi and natural human microbiota. Annals of Parasitology 60: 159-168.
  • [12] Kasprowicz A., Owczarek M.M., Międzobrodzki J., Białecka A. 2012. A comparison of biochemical and genetic classification of Propionibacterium acnes straines isolated from skin lesions of patients with acne. Medycyna Doświadczalna i Mikrobiologia 64: 203-210.
  • [13] Bravo J.A., Forsythe P., Chew M.V., Escaravage E., Savigna H.M., Dinan T.G., Bienenstock J., Cryan J.F. 2011. Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108: 16050-16055.
  • [14] Kohoutova D., Smajs D., Moravkova P., Cyrany J., Moravkova M., Forstlova M., Cihak M., Rejchrt S., Bures J. 2014. Escherichia coli strains of phylogenetic group B2 and D and bacteriocin production are associated with advanced colorectal neoplasia. BMC Infectious Diseases 14: 733. doi:10.1186/s12879-014-0733-7.
  • [15] Murphya A.M., Besmera D.M., Moerdyk-Schauweckera M., Moestla N., Ornellesb D.A., Mukherjeea P., Grdzelishvilia V.Z. 2012. Vesicular stomatitis virus as an oncolytic agent against pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Journal of Virology 86: 3073-3087.
  • [16] Ridaura V.K., Faith J.J., Rey F.E., Cheng J. et al. 2013. Science 341: 1241214.
  • [17] Cirimotich C.M., Dong Y., Clayton A.M., Sandiford S.L., Souza-Neto J.A., Mulenga M., Dimopoulos G. 2011. Natural microbe-mediated refractoriness to Plasmodium infection in Anopheles gambiae. Science 332: 855-858. doi:10.1126/science.1201618.
  • [18] Summers R.W., Elliott D.E., Urban Jr J.F., Thompson R., Weinstock J.V. 2005. Trichuris suis therapy in Crohn’s disease. Gut 54: 87-90. doi:10.1136/gut.2004.041749.
  • [19] Donskow-Łysoniewska K., Krawczak K., Doligalska M. 2012. Heligmosomoides polygyrus: EAE remission is correlated with different systemic cytokine profiles provoked by L4 and adult nematodes. Experimental Parasitology 132: 243-248.
  • [20] Rüping M.J., Vehreschild J.J., Cornely O.A. 2008. Patients at high risk of invasive fungal infections: when and how to treat. Drugs 68:1941-1962.
  • [21] Schwartz S., Reisman A., Troke P.F. 2011. The efficacy of voriconazole in the treatment of 192 fungal central nervous system infections: a retrospective analysis. Infection 39: 201-210. doi:10.1007/s15010-011-0108-6.
  • [22] Dotis J., Iosifidis E., Roilides E. 2007. Central nervous system aspergillosis in children: a systematic review of reported cases. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 11: 381-393.
  • [23] Khan Z.U., Ahmad S., Mokaddas E., Said T., Nair M.P., Halim M.A., Nampoory M.R., McGinnis M.R. 2007. Cerebral aspergillosis diagnosed by detection of Aspergillus flavus-specific DNA, galactomannan and (1–3)-β-d-glucan in clinical specimens. Journal of Medical Microbiology 56: 129-132. doi:10.1099/jmm.0.46549-0.
  • [24] Köse S., Çavdar G., Senger S.S., Akkoçlu G. 2011. Central nervous system aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 5:313-315.
  • [25] Kurnatowska A.J., Moqbil S., Kurnatowski P. 2012. Oral candidasis. e-Dentico 1: 48-60.
  • [26] Góralska K., Klimczak A. Rachubiński P., Jagłowska A., Kwapiszewska A. 2015. Consumption of sweetened beverages as a risk factor of colonization of oral cavity by fungi– eating habits of university students. Annals of Parasitology 61:175-182.
  • [27] Moqbil S., Kurnatowski P. 2012. Secretion of hydrolytic enzymes by fungal strains, isolated from patients with malignant tumors of head and neck, before, during and after radiotherapy. Annals of Parasitology 58: 27-35.
  • [28] Ganaie M.A., Sood S., Rizvi G., Khan T.A. 2010. Isolation and identification of keratinophilic fungi from different soil samples in Jhansi City (India). Plant Pathology Journal 9: 194-197. doi:10.3923/ppj.2010.194.197.
  • [29] Maruthi A.Y., Hossain K., Chaitanya A.D. 2012. Incidence of dermatophytes school soils of Visakhapatnam: a case study. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences and Research 2: 534-538.
  • [30] Rizwana H., Abdulaziz Al Hazzani A., Siddiqui I. 2012. Prevalence of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi from soils of public parks and playgrounds of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 22: 948-953.
  • [31] Dynowska M. 1998. Hialohyfomikoza podudzia wywołana przez Fusarium solani. Mikologia Lekarska 5: 241-245.
  • [32] Mokaddas E., Burhamah M.H., Ahmad S., Khan Z.U. 2010. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis due to Aspergillus terreus: value of DNA, galactomannan and (1->3)-beta-D-glucan detection in serum samples as an adjunct to diagnosis. Journal of Medical Microbiology 59:1519-1523. doi:10.1099/jmm. 0.023630-0.
  • [33] Geltner C., Lass-Flörl C., Bonatti H., Müller L., Stelzmüller, I. 2013. Invasive pulmonary mycosis due to Penicillium chrysogenum: a new invasive pathogen. Transplantation 95: 21-23. doi:10.1097 /TP.0b013e31827ff214.
  • [34] Góralska K., Kurnatowski P., Błaszkowska J., Wójcik A. 2015. Soil of recreational areas as a reservoir of keratinolytic mould fungi and dermatophytes potentially pathogenic for humans. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 24: 993-1002. doi:10.15244/pjoes/32506.
  • [35] Zaias N., Rebell G. 2004. The successful treatment of Trichophyton rubrum nail bed (distal subungual) onychomycosis with intermittent pulse-dosed terbinafine. Archives of Dermatology 140: 691-695.
  • [36] Lakshmipathy D.T., Kannabiran K. 2010. Review on dermatomycosis: pathogenesis and treatment. Natural Sciences 2: 726-731. doi.10.4236/ns. 2010.27090.
  • [37] Sigurgeirsson B., Baran R. 2014. The prevalence of onychomycosis in the global population – A literature study. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 28: 1480-1491. doi:10. 1111/ jdv.12323.
  • [38] Abdullah L., Abbas O. 2011. Common nail changes and disorders in older people: Diagnosis and management. Canadian Family Physician 57: 173-181.
  • [39] Westerberg D.P., Voyack M.J. 2013. Onycho - mycosis: Current trends in diagnosis and treatment. American Family Physician 88: 762-770.
  • [40] Sotiriou E., Koussidou-Ermonti T., Chaidemenos G., Apalla Z., Ioannides D. 2010. Photodynamic therapy for distal and lateral subungual toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: Preliminary results of a single-centre open trial. Acta Dermato-Venerologica 90: 216-217.
  • [41] Vural E., Winfield H.L., Shingleton A.W., Horn T.D., Shafirstein G. 2008. The effects of laser irradiation on Trichophyton rubrum growth. Lasers in Medical Sciences 23: 349-53.
  • [42] Kimura U., Takeuchi K., Kinoshita A., Takamori K., Hiruma M., Suga Y. 2012. Treating onychomycoses of the toenail: clinical efficacy of the sub-millisecond 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser using a 5 mm spot diameter. Journal of Drugs in Dermatology 11: 496-504.
  • [43] Pavie J., Menotti J., Porcher R., Donay J.L., Gallien S., Sarfati C., Derouin F., Molina J.M. 2012. Prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cells counts in France in the combination antiretroviral therapy era. International Journal of Infectious Disease 16: e677-679. doi:10.1016/j.ijid. 2012.05.1022.
  • [44] Bednarska M., Bajer A., Welc-Faleciak R., Czubkowski P., Teisseyre M., Graczyk T.K., Jankowska I. 2013. The first case of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in Poland. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 20: 287-288.
  • [45] Tan K., Mirza H., Teo J., Wu B., MacAry P. 2010. Current views on the clinical relevance of Blastocystis spp. Current Infectious Disease Reports 12: 28-35.
  • [46] Sadaf H.S., Khan S.S., Urooj K.S., Asma B., Shah Muhammad Ajmal S.M. 2013. Blastocystis hominispotential diahorreal agent: a review. International Research Journal of Pharmacy 4: 1-6. 6421e4ce68842d58dabb81a15f876d4.
  • [47] Thompson R.C.A., Smith A. 2011. Zoonotic enteric protozoa. Veterinary Parasitology 182: 70-78. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.07.016.
  • [48] Popruk S., Pintong A., Prayong Radomyos P. 2013. Diversity of Blastocystis subtypes in humans. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 36: 88-97.
  • [49] Slack A. 2012. Parasitic causes of prolonged diarrhoea in travelers. Australian Family Physician 41: 782-786.
  • [50] Stępień M., Rosińska M. 2014. Imported malaria in Poland 2003 to 2011: Implications of different travel patterns. Journal of Travel Medicine 21:189-194. doi:10.1111/jtm.12109.
  • [51] Deplazes P., van Knapen F., Schweiger A., Overgaauw P.A. 2011. Role of pet dogs and cats in the transmission of helminthic zoonoses in Europe, with a focus on echinococcosis and toxocarosis. Veterinary Parasitology 182: 41-53. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar. 2011. 07.014.
  • [52] Błaszkowska J., Góralska K., Wójcik A., Kurnatowski P., Szwabe K. 2015. Presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in children’s recreation areas with varying degrees of access for animals. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 22:23-27. doi:10.5604/12321966.1141363
  • [53] Torgerson P.R., Keller K., Magnotta M., Ragland N. 2010. The global burden of alveolar echinococcosis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4: e722. doi:10.1371 /journal.pntd.0000722.
  • [54] Karamon J., Kochanowski M., Sroka J., Cencek T., Różycki M., Chmurzyńska E., Bilska-Zając E. 2014. The prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in Poland – current results (2009–2013). Parasitology Research 113: 317-322.
  • [55] Nahorski W.L., Knap J.P., Pawłowski Z.S. et al. 2013. Human alveolar echinococcosis in Poland: 1990–2011. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 7: e1986.
  • [56] Lass A., Szostakowska B., Myjak P., Korzeniewski K. 2015. The first detection of Echinococcus multilocularis DNA in environmental fruit, vegetable, and mushroom samples using nested PCR. Parasitology Research 114: 4023-4029. doi:10.1007/s00436-015-4630-9.
  • [57] Szostakowska B., Lass A., Kostyra K., Pietkiewicz H., Myjak P. 2014. First finding of Echinococcus multilocularis DNA in soil: preliminary survey in Warmia-Masuria province, northeast Poland. Veterinary Parasitology 203: 73-79. doi:10.1016/ j.vetpar.2014.02.028.
  • [58] Popiołek M., Szczęsna-Staśkiewicz J., Bartoszewicz M., Okarma H., Smalec B., Zalewski A. 2011. Helminth parasites of an introduced invasive carnivore species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor L.), from the Warta Mouth National Park (Poland). Journal of Parasitology 97: 357-60. doi:10.1645/GE-2525.1.
  • [59] Wise M.E., Sorvillo F.J., Shafir S.C., Ash L.R., Berlin O.G. 2005. Severe and fatal central nervous system disease in humans caused by Baylisascaris procyonis, the common roundworm of raccoons: a review of current literature. Microbes and Infection 7: 317-323.
  • [60] Karamon J., Kochanowski M., Cencek T., Bartoszewicz M., Kusyk P. 2014. Gastrointestinal helminths of raccoons (Procyon lotor) in western Poland (Lubuskie province) – with particular regard to Baylisascaris procyonis. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 58: 547-552. doi:10.2478/bvip-2014-0084.
  • [61] Bartoszewicz M., Okarma H., Zalewski A., Szczęsna J. 2008. Ecology of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from western Poland. Annales Zoologici Fennici 45: 291-298.
  • [62] Flegr J., Prandota J., Sovickova, M. Israili Z.H. 2014. Toxoplasmosis – a global threat. Correlation of latent toxoplasmosis with specific disease burden in a set of 88 countries. PLoS ONE 9: e90203. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090203.
  • [63] Park Y.H., Nam H.W. 2013. Clinical features and treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. Korean Journal of Parasitology 51: 393-399. kjp.2013.51.4.393.
  • [64] Commodaro A.G., Belfort R.N., Rizzo L.V., Muccioli1 C., Silveira C., Burnier M.N.Jr, Belfort R. 2009. Ocular toxoplasmosis – an update and review of the literature. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 104: 345-350.
  • [65] Grzybowski M.M., Dziadek B., Dziadek J., Gatkowska J., Dzitko K., Długońska H. 2015. Toxoplasma gondii: cloning, expression and immunoreactivity of recombinant ROP5 and ROP18 antigens. Experimental Parasitology 150:1-6. doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2015.01.006.
  • [66] Montoya J.G., Liesenfeld O. 2004. Toxoplasmosis. Lancet 363:1965-1976.
  • [67] Lobato J., Silva D.A., Mineo T.W., Amaral J.D., Segundo G.R., Costa-Cruz J.M., Ferreira M.S., Borges A.S., Mineo J.R. 2006. Detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to Neospora caninum in humans: high seropositivity rates in patients who are infected by human immunodeficiency virus or have neurological disorders. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 1: 84-89.
  • [68] Kaltungo B.Y., Musa I.W. 2013. A review of some protozoan parasites causing infertility in farm animals. Tropical Medicine Article ID 782609.
  • [69] Gawor J. 2013. Trichinella pseudospiralis – nowy gatunek włośnia w środowisku leśnym w Polsce. Czy wzrasta zagrożenie włośnicą dla ludzi? Życie Weterynaryjne 88: 1053-1054.
  • [70] Chmurzyńska E., Różycki M., Bilska-Zając E., Nöckler K., Mayer-Scholl A., Pozio E., Cencek T., Karamon J. 2013. Trichinella nativa in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Germany and Poland: possible different origins. Veterinary Parasitology 198: 254-257.
  • [71] Alum A., Rubino J.R., Khakud M.K. 2010. The global war against intestinal parasites – should we use a holistic approach? International Journal of Infectious Diseases 14: e732-e738.
  • [72] Kashyap B., Samantray J.C., Kumar S., Jhamb R., Singh A.K., Kaur I.R. 2014. Recurrent paediatric pinworm infection of the vagina as a potential reservoir for Enterobius vermicularis. Journal of Helminthology 88: 381-383. doi:10.1017/ S0022149 X13000345.
  • [73] Serpytis M., Seinin D. 2012. Fatal case of ectopic enterobiasis: Enterobius vermicularis in the kidneys. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 46: 70-72.
  • [74] Bitkowska B., Wnukowska N., Wojtyniak B., Dzbeński T.H. 2004. Analiza występowania pasożytów jelitowych u dzieci klas pierwszych w Polsce w roku szkolnym 2002/2003. Przegląd Epidemiologiczny 58: 295-302.
  • [75] Kubiak K., Wrońska M., Dzika E., Dziedziech M., Poźniak H., Leokajtis M., Dzisko J. 2015. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in children in preschools and orphanages in the Warmia-Masuria province (North-Eastern Poland). Przegląd Epidemiologiczny 69: 483-488.
  • [76] Gniadek A., Cepuch G.,Ochender K., Salamon D. 2015. The level of knowledge about parasitic diseases and the threats resulting from their presence in the environment evaluated in a group of parents of preschool children. Annals of Parasitology 61: 109-114.
  • [77] Przychodzień A., Mianowany M., Głowacka A. 2012. Poziom wiedzy studentów na temat wybranych zagrożeń pasożytniczych występujących w miejscach zabaw dzieci w okresie letnim. Zdrowie Publiczne 3: 240-245.
  • [78] Główny Inspektorat Sanitarny 2015. Stan Sanitarny Kraju w roku 2014. Główny Inspektorat Sanitarny, Warszawa.
  • [79] Główny Inspektorat Sanitarny 2011. Stan Sanitarny Kraju w roku 2010. Główny Inspektorat Sanitarny, Warszawa.
  • [80] Jongejan F., Uilenberg G. 2004. The global importance of ticks. Parasitology 129: 3-14.
  • [81] Rar V., Golovljova I. 2010. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and „Candidatus Neoehrlichia„ bacteria: pathogenicity, biodiversity, and molecular genetic characteristics, a review. Infection, Genetics and Evolution: Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases 11: 1842-1861. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2011.09.019.
  • [82] Welinder-Olsson C., Kjellin E., Vaht K., Jacobsson S., Wennerås C. 2010. First case of human “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” infection in a febrile patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 48: 1956-1959.
  • [83] Pekova S., Vydra J., Kabickova H., Frankova S., Haugvicova R., Mazal O., Cmejla R., Hardekopf D.W., Jancuskova T., Kozak T. 2011. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis infection identified in 2 hematooncologic patients: benefit of molecular techniques for rare pathogen detection. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 69: 266-270.
  • [84] Gray J.S., Dautel H., Estrada-Peña A., Kahl O., Lindgren E. 2009. Effects of climate change on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Europe. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases.

Typ dokumentu



Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.