Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2019 | 67 | 1 |

Tytuł artykułu

Plant traits response to grazing exclusion by fencing assessed via multiple classification approach: a case from a subalpine meadow

Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



Using multiple classification approach to examine plant traits response to grazing and fencing (as without access to grazing) is rare. Here we used multiple classification approach to examine plant diversity, productivity and species traits response to grazing and fencing over a three-year period on the eastern part of the Qing-Hai Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that most common species response to the fence was poorly noticeable. The fencing meadows compared to those under long-term free grazing are characterized by significantly higher total species richness, but species richness declined with sampling years gradually, regardless of grazing or fencing. The correlation showed that species richness was negatively associated with mean annual temperature significantly, suggesting that abiotic factors (e.g. annual temperature) could also play important roles in driving species richness in this subalpine meadow. Total aboveground biomass was not associated with mean annual temperature and rainfall. The fencing meadow demonstrated higher community aboveground biomass relative to the grazing ones, especially the abundance of legume and graminoids increased, while the proportions of sedge decreased, suggested that grazing disturbance favours the increase of reproductive success of sedge (e.g. Kobresia humilis) in this subalpine meadow. Growth form-based analyses combined with canopy height categories should be recommended to reveal general rules and mechanisms relating to grazing.








Opis fizyczny



  • State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China
  • State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China
  • State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China
  • State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China
  • Grassland Professional Team of Henan Mongolis Autonomous County, Henan 811500, Qinghai, China
  • Key Laboratory of Restoration Ecology of Cold Area in Qinghai Province, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, 810008, Qinghai, China
  • Key Laboratory of Restoration Ecology of Cold Area in Qinghai Province, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, 810008, Qinghai, China
  • Key Laboratory of Vegetation Ecology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Grassland Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130024, Jilin, China


  • Akiyama T., Kawamura K. 2007 - Grassland degradation in China: Methods of monitoring, management and restoration - Grassland Science, 53: 1-17.
  • Bakker E.S., Ritchie M.E., Olff H., Milchunas D.G., Knops J.M.H. 2006 - Herbivore impact on grassland plant diversity depends on habitat productivity and herbivore size - Ecol. Lett.9: 780-788.
  • Belsky A.J.1992- Effects of grazing, competition, disturbance and fire on species composition and diversity in grassland communities - J. Veg. Sci.3: 187-200.
  • Borer E.T., Seabloom E.W., Gruner D.S., Harpole W.S., Hillebrand H., et al. 2014 - Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation - Nature, 508: 517-520.
  • Box E.O. 1996 - Plant functional types and climate at the global scale - J. Veg. Sci.7: 309-320.
  • Cingolani A.M., Posse G., Collantes M.B. 2005- Plant functional traits, herbivore selectivity and response to sheep grazing in Patagonian steppe grasslands - J. Appl. Ecol.42: 50-59.
  • Collins S.L., Benning T.R. 1996 - Spatial and temporal patterns in functional diversity? (In: Biodiversity: a biology of numbers and difference, Ed: K.J.Gaston) - Blackwell Science, Cambridge, MA, pp: 253–280.
  • Collins S.L., L.B. Calabrese 2012- Effects of fire, grazing and topographic variation on vegetation structure in tallgrass prairie - J. Veg. Sci.23: 563-575.
  • Collins S.L., Knapp A.P., Briggs J.M., Blair J.M., Steinauer E.M. 1998 - Modulation of diversity by grazing and mowing in native Tallgrass Prairie – Science, 280: 745-747.
  • Díaz S., Acosta A., Cabido M. 1992- Morphological analysis of herbaceous communities under different grazing regimes - J. Veg. Sci. 3: 689-696.
  • Díaz S., Lavorel S., McIntyre S.U.E., Falczuk V., Casanoves F., Milchunas D.G., Skarpe C., Rusch G., Sternberg M., Noy-Meir I., Landsberg J., Zhang W.E.I., Clark H., Campbell B.D. 2007 - Plant trait responses to grazing - a global synthesis - Global Change Biol.13: 313-341.
  • Díaz S., Noy-Meir I., Cabido M. 2001 - Can grazing response of herbaceous plants be predicted from simple vegetative traits? - J. Appl. Ecol.38: 497-508.
  • De Bello F., Lepš J.A.N., Sebastià M.T. 2005 - Predictive value of plant traits to grazing along a climatic gradient in the Mediterranean - J. Appl. Ecol.42: 824-833.
  • Dorrepaal E. 2007- Are plant growth-form-based classifications useful in predicting northern ecosystem carbon cycling feed-backs to climate change? - J . Ecol.95: 1167-1180.
  • Eby, S., Burkepile D.E., Fynn R.W., Burns C.E., Govender N., Hagenah N., Koerner S.E., Matchett K.J., Thompson D.I., Wilcox K.R. 2014 - Loss of a large grazer impacts savanna grassland plant communities similarly in North America and South Africa – Oecologia, 175: 293-303.
  • Evju, M., Austrheim G., Halvorsen R., Mysterud A. 2009 - Grazing responses in herbs in relation to herbivore selectivity and plant traits in an alpine ecosystem - Oecologia, 161: 77-85.
  • Fernández O.A., Gil M.E., Distel R.A., Tal A. 2009- The challenge of rangeland degradation in a temperate semiarid region of Argentina: the Caldenal - Land Degrad. Dev.20: 431-440.
  • Gallego L., Iglesias R.M.R. 2004 - Soil phytoliths as evidence for species replacement in grazed rangelands of central Argentina – Ecography, 27: 725-732.
  • Gong Z.T. 1999 - Chinese soil taxonomy: theories methods and applications - Science Press, Beijing.
  • Hobbs N.T.1996 - Modification of Ecosystems by Ungulates - J. Wildl. Manage. 60: 695-713.
  • Koerner S.E., Burkepile D.E., Fynn R.W., Burns C.E., Eby S., Govender N., Hagenah N., Matchett K.J., Thompson D.I., Wilcox K.R. 2014 - Plant community response to loss of large herbivores differs between North American and South African savanna grasslands – Ecology, 95: 808-816.
  • Laliberté E., Shipley B., Norton D.A., Scott D. 2012- Which plant traits determine abundance under long-term shifts in soil resource availability and grazing intensity? - J. Ecol.100: 662-677.
  • Landsberg J., James C.D., Maconochie J., Nicholls A.O., Stol J., Tynan R. 2002 - Scale-related effects of grazing on native plant communities in an arid rangeland region of South Australia - J. Appl. Ecol.39: 427-444.
  • Landsberg J., Lavorel S., Stol J. 1999 - Grazing response groups among understorey plants in arid rangelands - J. Veg. Sci.10: 683-696.
  • Lauenroth W.K., Dodd J.L., Sims P.L. 1978 - The effects of water- and nitrogen-induced stresses on plant community structure in a semiarid grassland – Oecologia, 36: 211-222.
  • Lavorel S., Grigulis K. 1999- Plant response to disturbance in a Mediterranean grassland: How many functional groups? - J. Veg. Sci.10: 661–672.
  • Lavorel S., McIntyre S., Landsberg J., Forbes T.D.A. 1997 - Plant functional classifications: from general groups to specific groups based on response to disturbance - Trends Ecol. Evol.12: 474-478.
  • López-Pujol J., Zhang F.M, Ge S. 2006- Plant biodiversity in China: richly varied, endangered, and in need of conservation - Biodivers. Conserv.15: 3983-4026.
  • Li W.J., Knops J.M.H., Brassil C.E., Lu J.F., Qi W., Li J.H., Liu M.X., Chang S.H., Li W.L. 2016- Functional group dominance and not productivity drives species richness - Plant Ecol. Divers9: 141-150.
  • Li W.J., Li J.H., Liu S.S., Zhang R.L., Qi W., Zhang R.Y., Knops J.M.H., Lu J.F. 2017- Magnitude of species diversity effect on aboveground plant biomass increases through successional time of abandoned farmlands on the eastern Tibetan Plateau of China V Land Degrad.Dev.28: 370-378.
  • Liu C., Wang L., Song X.X., Chang Q., Frank D.A., Wang D.L., Li J., Lin H.J., Du F.Y. 2018 - Towards a mechanistic understanding of the effect that different species of large grazers have on grassland soil N availability - J. Ecol.106: 357-366.
  • Mcnaughton S.J. 1978 - Serengeti ungulates: feeding selectivity influences the effectiveness of plant defense guilds – Science, 199: 806-807.
  • Miehe G., Miehe S., Böhner J., Kaiser K., Hensen I., Madsen D., Liu J., Opgenoorth L. 2014 - How old is the human footprint in the world's largest alpine ecosystem? A review of multiproxy records from the Tibetan Plateau from the ecologists' viewpoint - Quaternary Science Reviews, 86: 190-209.
  • Milchunas D., Sala O., Lauenroth W.K. 1988- A generalized model of the effects of grazing by large herbivores on grassland community structure - Am. Nat.132: 87-106.
  • Milchunas D.G., Lauenroth W.K. 1993- Quantitative Effects of Grazing on Vegetation and Soils Over a Global Range of Environments - Ecol. Monogr.63: 327-366.
  • Niu K.C., He J.S., Zhang S.T., Lechowicz M.J. 2016 - Grazing increases functional richness but not functional divergence in Tibetan alpine meadow plant communities - Biodivers. Conserv.25: 2441-2452.
  • Noy-Meir I., Gutman M., Kaplan Y. 1989- Responses of Mediterranean grassland plants to grazing and protection - J. Ecol.77: 290-310.
  • Olff H., Ritchie M.E. 1998 - Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity - Trends Ecol. Evol.13: 261-265.
  • Pacala S.W., Crawley M.J. 1992- Herbivores and Plant Diversity - Am. Nat.140: 243-260.
  • Pakeman R.J. 2004 - Consistency of plant species and trait responses to grazing along a productivity gradient: a multi-site analysis - J. Ecol.92: 893-905.
  • Peco B., de Pablos I., Traba J., Levassor C. 2005 - The effect of grazing abandonment on species composition and functional traits: the case of dehesa grasslands - Basic Appl. Ecol.6: 175-183.
  • Pettit N.E., Froend R.H., Ladd P.G. 1995 - Grazing in remnant woodland vegetation: changes in species composition and life form groups - J. Veg. Sci.6: 121-130.
  • Root-Bernstein M., Ebensperger L.A. 2013 - Meta-analysis of the effects of small mammal disturbances on species diversity, richness and plant biomass - Austral Ecol.38: 289-299.
  • Sheng H.Y., Cao G.M., Li G.R., Zhou J.J., Jiao W.Y., Li J.P. 2009 – [Effect of grazing on of alpine meadow dominated by Potentilla froticosa shrub on Qilian Mountain] - Ecology & Environment, 18: 235-241 (in Chinese).
  • Snyman H.A., du Preez C.C. 2005 - Rangeland degradation in a semi-arid South Africa - II: influence on soil quality - J. Arid Environ.60: 483-507.
  • Tobler M.W., Cochard R., Edwards P.J. 2003 - The impact of cattle ranching on large-scale vegetation patterns in a coastal savanna in Tanzania - J. Appl. Ecol.40: 430-444.
  • Violle C., Navas M.L., Vile D., Kazakou E., Fortunel C., Hummel I., Garnier E. 2007 - Let the concept of trait be functional! - Oikos, 116: 882-892.
  • Wang J., Zhong M., Wu R., Dong Q., Wang K., Shao X. 2016 - Response of plant functional traits to grazing for three dominant species in alpine steppe habitat of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China - Ecol. Res.31: 515-524.
  • Wu G.L., Du G.Z., Liu Z.H., Thirgood S. 2009 - Effect of fencing and grazing on a Kobresia-dominated meadow in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau - Plant Soil, 319: 115-126.
  • Wu J.S., Shen Z.X., Zhang X.Z., Shi P.L. 2013 - Biomass allocation patterns of alpine grassland species and functional groups along a precipitation gradient on the Northern Tibetan Plateau – J. Mt. Sci.10: 1097-1108.
  • Xiong D.P., Shi P.L., Sun Y.L., Wu J.S., Zhang X.Z. 2014 - Effects of grazing exclusion on plant productivity and soil carbon, nitrogen storage in alpine meadows in northern Tibet, China - Chinese Geogr. Sci.24: 488-498.
  • Xiong D., Shi P., Zhang X., Zou C.B. 2016 - Effects of grazing exclusion on carbon sequestration and plant diversity in grasslands of China - A meta-analysis - Ecol. Eng.94: 647-655.
  • Yu C., Zhang X., Zhang J., Li S., Song C., Fang Y., Wurst S., Wu J. 2016 - Grazing Exclusion to Recover Degraded Alpine Pastures Needs Scientific Assessments across the Northern Tibetan Plateau – Sustainability, 8: 1162.
  • Zhang J., Huang Y., Chen H., Gong J., Qi Y., Li E., Wu X. 2018 - Response of plant functional traits at species and community levels to grazing exclusion on Inner Mongolian steppe, China - Rangeland J.40: 179-189.
  • Zheng S., Lan Z., Li W., Shao R., Shan Y., Wan H., Taube F., Bai Y. 2011 - Differential responses of plant functional trait to grazing between two contrasting dominant C3 and C4 species in a typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, China - Plant Soil, 340: 141-155.
  • Zheng S., Li W., Lan Z., Ren H., Wang K. 2015- Functional trait responses to grazing are mediated by soil moisture and plant functional group identity - Sci. Rep-UK5: 18163.
  • Zhou H.K., Zhao X.Q., Tang Y.H., Zhou L., Liu W., Long Y.U. 2004 - Effect of long-term grazing on alpine shrub vegetation in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau - Grassland of China, 26: 1-11.
  • Zhou H.K., Zhao X.Q., Wang S.P., Zhao L., Shi-Xiao X.U. 2008- Vegetation responses to a long-term grazing intensity experiment in alpine shrub grassland on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau - Acta Bot. Boreali-Occidential Sinica, 28: 2080-2093.
  • Zhu H., Wang D.L., Wang L., Bai Y.G., Fang J., Liu J. 2012a - The effects of large herbivore grazing on meadow steppe plant and insect diversity - J. Appl. Ecol.49: 1075-1083.
  • Zhu J., Zhang Y., Liu Y. 2016 - Effects of short-term grazing exclusion on plant phenology and reproductive succession in a Tibetan alpine meadow - Sci. Rep-UK, 6: 27781.
  • Zhu Z., Wang X., Li Y., Wang G., Guo H. 2012b- Predicting plant traits and functional types response to grazing in an alpine shrub meadow on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau – Sci. China Earth Sci. 55: 837-851.

Typ dokumentu


Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.