A type of stress stimulation and age are claimed to affect the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor - tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) in the hippocampal regions differentially. This study aimed to explore the influence of chronic (15 min daily for 21 days) forced swim stress (FS) exposure on the BDNF and TrkB containing neurons in the hippocampal CA1, CA3 pyramidal cell layers and dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell layer in juvenile (P28) and aged (P360) rats. An immunofluorescence (-ir) method was used to detect BDNF-ir and TrkB-ir cells. Under chronic FS exposure, in the group of juvenile rats a significant decrease in the density of BDNF immunoreactive neurons was observed in CA1 and DG (p<0.001), unlike CA3, where it remained unaltered just as the density of TrkB-ir cells in CA1 and DG, but in CA3 the number of TrkB-ir cells was found to grow (p<0.05) in comparison with control groups. After chronic FS exposure of aged (P360) rats, the density of BDNF-ir and TrkB-ir cells did not decline in any of the subregions of the hippocampus. In all subfields of the hippocampus, the denseness of BDNF-positive neurons was significantly higher in P360 stressed group, compared with P28 stressed group, but the density of TrkB-ir fell more markedly in P360 than in P28. In conclusion, chronic FS stress influenced the number of BDNF and TrkB immunoreactive neurons only in juvenile animals. The age of rats tested in the chronic forced swim test was a decisive factor determining changes in the density of BDNF-ir and TrkB-ir in the hippocampal structures.