Phosphorus (P) is an essential building block of life. It is an irreplaceable part of agriculture, as there is no substitute for its use for producing food and feed. The objective of P fertilization is to add an adequate (in regard to soil test P) amount of P to produce an economical yield. Unbalanced P management leads to P wastage, lower cost-effectiveness of production, and water quality impairment. The aim of this paper is to analyze the structure and trends in the consumption of phosphorus mineral fertilizers and to draw gross phosphorus balance in Poland (NUTS level 1) and by regions (NUTS level 2). In Poland, P for agriculture is mainly applied as a compound fertilizer, among which diammonium phosphate represents the greatest share. Average P consumption rate in Poland has declined slightly since 2008, currently reaching 24.4 kg P2O5∙ha⁻¹ UAA. The differences in intensity of farming, measured by the consumption of PMF, reached more than 200%, and this differentiation has intensified over the years. The polarization of Polish agriculture is also confirmed by GPB outcome, as differences between provinces are in the range of -1.9 kg P·ha⁻¹ UAA in Małopolskie to 7.7 kg P·ha⁻¹ UAA in the Wielkopolskie region. The differences in crop and animal production in Poland are largely conditioned by both organizational and production management, which conjointly affect agricultural phosphorus use efficiency.