Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2015 | 37 | 04 |

Tytuł artykułu

Effect of bending on the dynamic changes of endogenous hormones in shoot terminals of ‘Fuji’ and ‘Gala’ apple trees


Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



Branch bending has been practiced for decades as an effective means of inducing floral buds in ‘Fuji’ apple in China. Endogenous hormones play an important role in apple flowering. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the hormone concentrations (ABA, ZR, IAA and GA) in spurs, medium and long shoot terminals of ‘Fuji’ and ‘Gala’ apple trees subjected to bending of different angles (70°, 90° or 110°). In both cultivars, the proportion of floral buds and spurs increased, but that of medium and long shoots decreased with increasing bending angles. TheABA and ZR concentrations in shoot terminals increased, but the IAA and GA concentrations decreased as the bending angles increased from 70° to 110°. The ZR concentration increased monotonically in spurs apexes, but in medium and long shoot terminals it increased from a minimum on May 10 to a maximum on June 20 for ‘Fuji’ apple trees or on July 20 for ‘Gala’ apple trees, and then decreased thereafter. It was also observed that the ‘Gala' apple trees had a higher ABA concentration but a lower IAA concentration in shoot terminals than the ‘Fuji’ apple trees. The ZR concentration in spurs apexes of ‘Gala’ apple trees was higher before July 1, and the GA concentration was higher before June 20, but lower after July 20 than the ‘Fuji’. The (IAA + GA + ZR)/ABA ratio of spurs apexes in ‘Fuji’ apple trees decreased with increasing bending angles during the whole growth season, with a significant difference between those bent at 110° and those bent at 70°. There was no significant difference for the ‘Gala’ apple trees. The (IAA + GA + ZR)/ABA ratio peaked on June 20, and it was higher in ‘Fuji’ than in ‘Gala’ apple trees throughout the study period.

Słowa kluczowe








Opis fizyczny

Article: 76 [9 p.], fig.,ref.


  • College of Horticulture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, China
  • College of Horticulture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, China
  • College of Horticulture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling 712100, China
  • College of Horticulture, Shandong Agriculture University, Taian 271018, China


  • Bangerth F (1989) Dominance among fruit/sinks and the search for a correlative signal. Physiol Plant 76:608–614
  • Bangerth F (1993) Polar auxin transport as a signal in the regulation of tree and fruit development. Acta Hortic 329:70–76
  • Belleggia A, Murri G, Neri D (2010) Crop load control of Fuji apple in central Italy. Acta Hortic 884:399–406
  • Black BL (2004) Prohexadione-calcium decreases fall runners and advances branch crowns of ‘Chandler’ strawberry in a coldclimate annual production system. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 129:479–485
  • Caboni E, Angeli SD, Chiappetta A, Innocenti AM, Onckelen HV, Damiano C (2002) Adventitious shoot regeneration from vegetative shoot apices in pear and putative role of cytokinin accumulation in the morphogenetic process. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 70:199–206
  • Costes E, Lauri PE, Regnard JL (2006) Analyzing fruit tree architecture: implications for tree management and fruit production. In: Janick J (ed) Hort. Rev, vol 32, pp 1–61
  • Curry EA, Greene DW (1993) CPPU influences fruit quality, fruit set, return bloom and preharvest drop of apple. HortScience 28:115–118
  • Cutting JGM, Strydom DK et al (1991) Changes in xylem constituents in response to rest-breaking agents applied to apple before budbreak. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 116:680–683
  • Forshey CG, Elfving DC (1989) The relationship between vegetative growth and fruiting in apple trees. Hortic. Rev 11:229–271
  • Forshey CG, Elfving DC, Stebbins RL (1992) Training and pruning apple trees. ASHS Press/Am. Soc. Hort. Sci., Alexandria, p 166
  • Garcia-Luis A, Almela V, Monerri C, Agustí M, Guardiola JL (1986) Inhibition of flowering in vivo by existing fruits and applied growth regulators in Citrus unshiu. Physiol. Plant 66:515–520
  • Goldschmidt-Reischel E (1997) Regulating trees of apple and pear by pruning and bending. Swed J Agric Res 27:45–52
  • Greene DW (1989) Gibberellins A4+7 influence fruit set, fruit quality, and return bloom of apples. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 114:619–625
  • Greene DW (1999) Tree growth management and fruit quality of apple trees treated with prohexadione-calcium (BAS 125). HortScience 34:1209–1212
  • Grochowska MJ, Karaszewska A (1978) A possible role of hormones in growth and development of apple trees and a suggestion on how to modify their action. Acta Hortic 80:457–474
  • Hampson CR, Quamme HA, Kappel F, Brownlee RT (2004a) Varying density with constant rectangularity. I. Effects on apple tree growth and light interception in three training systems over ten years. Hortic Sci 39:501–506
  • Hampson CR, Quamme HA, Kappel F, Brownlee RT (2004b) Varying density with constant rectangularity. II. Effects on apple tree yield, fruit size, and fruit color development in three training systems over ten years. Hortic Sci 39:507–511
  • Han H-H, Coutand C, Cochard H, Trottier C, Lauri P-E (2007) Effects of shoot bending on lateral fate and hydraulics: invariant and changing traits across five apple genotypes. J Exp Bot 58(13):3537–3547
  • Hrotko K, Magyar L, Yao C, Ronay Z (1997) Effect of repeated BA (benzyladenine) application on feathering of ‘Idared’ apple nursery trees. Acta Hortic 463:169–175
  • Ito A, Yaegaki H, Hayama H, Kusaba S, Yamaguchi I, Yoshioka H (1999) Bending shoots stimulates flowering and influences hormone levels in lateral buds of Japanese pear. HortScience 34:1224–1228
  • Ito A, Hayama H, Yoshioka H (2001) The effect of shoot-bending on the amount of diffusible indole-3-acetic acid and its transport in shoots of Japanese pear. Plant Growth Regul 34:151–158. doi:10.1023/A:1013367530800
  • Lakhoua H, Crabbé J (1975) Arcure et gravimorphisme chez le Pommier. III. Effets de diverses époques d’arcure échelonnées del’automne au débourrement printanier. Bul Rech Agron Gembloux 10:65–74
  • Lakso AN (1984) Leaf area development pattern in young pruned and unpruned apple trees. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 109:861–865
  • Lauri PÉ , Lespinasse JM (1999) Apple tree training in France: current concepts and practical implications. Fruits 54:439–447
  • Lauri P-E, Lespinasse J-M (2001) Genotype of apple trees affects growth and fruiting responses to shoot bending at various times of year. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 26(2):169–174
  • Lavee S (1989) Involvement of plant growth regulators and endogenous growth substances in the control of alternate bearing. Acta Hortic 239:311–322
  • Lespinasse JM (1996) Apple orchard management practices in France: from the vertical axis to the solaxe. Compact Fruit Tree 29:83–88
  • Longman KA (1985) Variability in flower initiation in forest trees. In: Cannell MGR, Jackson JE (eds) Attributes of trees as crop plants. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, pp 398–408
  • Looney NE, Taylor JS, Pharis RP (1988) Relationship of endogenous gibberellin and cytokinin levels in shoot terminal to apical form in four strains of ‘McIntosh’ apple. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 113:395–398
  • McLaughlin JM, Greene DW (1991) Fruit and hormones influence flowering of apple. II. Effects of hormones. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 116:450–453
  • Meilan R (1997) Floral induction in woody angiosperms. New Forest 14:179–202
  • Naor A, Flaishman M, Stern R, Moshe A, Erez A (2003) Temperature effects on dormancy completion of vegetative buds in apple. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 128:636–641
  • Nigel CC, Dirk UB (2001) Chilling response of ‘Granny Smith’ apple lateral buds inhibited by distal shoot tissues. Sci Hortic 89:299–308
  • Ramírez H, Hoad GV, Benavides A, Rangel E (2001) Gibberellins in apple seeds and the transport of [3H]-GA4. J Mex Chem Soc 45:47–50
  • Ramírez H, Torres J, Benavides A, Hernández J, Robledo V (2004) Fruit bud initiation in apple cv Red Delicious linked to gibberellins and cytokinins. J Mex Chem Soc 48:7–10
  • Robinson TL (2003) Achieving a balance between vegetative growth and cropping. Compact Fruit Tree 36:33–36
  • Robinson TL, Hoying SA (2003) Descriptions of orchard planting systems. Compact Fruit Tree 36:50–64
  • Salisbury FB (1993) Gravitropism: changing ideas. In: Janick J (ed) Horticultural review, vol 15. Wiley, New York, pp 233–278
  • Sanyal D, Bangerth F (1998) Stress induced ethylene evolution and its possible relationship to auxin-transport, cytokinin levels, and flower bud induction in shoots of apple seedlings and bearing apple trees. Plant Growth Regul 24:27–134
  • Savini G, Neri D, Zucconi F, Mancini G (2007) Lateral shoot growth of apple, pear and cherry with selective disbudding on newly planted trees. Acta Hortic 732:587–592
  • Schumacher R (1989) Die Fruchtbarkeit der Obstgeho¨lze. E Ulmer-Verlag, Stuttgart
  • Tromp J (1972) Effects of growth-regulating substances and tree orientation on growth and flower bud formation in apple. J Hortic Sci 47:525–533
  • Tromp J (1987) Growth and flower bud formation in apple as affected by paclobutrazol, daminozide and tree orientation in combination with various gibberellins. J Hortic Sci 62:433–440
  • Tromp J, Ovaa JC (1990) Seasonal changes in the cytokinin composition of xylem sap of apple. J Plant Physiol 136:606–610
  • Tustin DS, Hirst PM, Warrington IJ (1988) Influence of orientation and position of fruiting laterals on canopy light penetration, yield, and fruit quality of ‘Granny Smith’ apples. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 113:693–699
  • Wareing P (1970) Growth and its co-ordination in trees. In: Luckwill LC, Cutting CV (eds) Physiology of tree crops. Academic Press, London, pp 1–21
  • Watanabe M et al (2004) Comparison of endogenous IAA and cytokinins in shoots of columnar and normal type apple trees. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 73:19–24
  • Wertheim SJ, Estabrooks EN (1994) Effect of repeated sprays of 6-benzyladenine on the formation of sylleptic shoots in apple in the fruit-tree nursery. Sci Hortic 60:31–39
  • Wunsche JN, Lakso AN (2000) Apple tree physiology—implications for orchard and tree management. Compact Fruit Tree 33:82–88
  • Yang Tx, Azh Wei, Zheng YY et al (2007) Simultaneous determination of 8 endogenous hormones in apricot floral bud by high performance liquid chromatography. Chin J Anal Chem 35(9):1359–1361
  • Zucconi F, Neri D (1993) The catalytic action of growth regulators in the control of plants. Acta Hortic 329:21–27

Typ dokumentu



Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.