Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2013 | 58 | 4 |

Tytuł artykułu

Significance of intermediate forms in phyletic reconstruction of ammonites: Early Jurassic Phricodoceras case study

Treść / Zawartość

Warianty tytułu

Języki publikacji



This paper discusses the phyletic interpretation of the genus Phricodoceras and its taxonomic classification at the subfamily, family, and superfamily levels from an historical and critical perspective. First a review of the latest findings on this taxon is presented and the grounds for the attribution of Phricodoceras to the Schlotheimiidae (Psiloceratoidea) are summarized and illustrated. This review is a synthesis grounded on evolutionary (e.g., heterochronies, innovations), eco−ethological (e.g., assumed shell hydrodynamic capacities) and spatio−temporal patterns (e.g., bio−chronostratigraphy, palaeobiogeography). Then, the main stages of understanding the taxonomy of Phricodoceras since the early nineteenth century are reviewed. Two main taxonomic concepts alternate over time. The first is based on the “overall resemblance” of Phricodoceras to some coeval Eoderoceratoidea leading to the genus being included in its own family or subfamily (e.g., Phricodoceratinae) among the Eoderoceratoidea. The second hypothesis, recently confirmed by the discovery of an intermediate form (i.e., Angulaticeras spinosus), clearly includes Phricodoceras within the Schlotheimiidae (Psiloceratoidea). Comparison of these two very different conceptions reveals how “overall resemblance” can be misleading and shows that the discovery of intermediate forms is often the key to phyletic reconstructions in ammonites.

Słowa kluczowe








Opis fizyczny



  • UFR Sciences Vie, Terre et Environnement, Universite de Bourgogne, CNRS/uB, UMR 5561, Biogeosciences Dijon, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, F-21000 Dijon, France
  • Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Geneve, Departement de Geologie et de Paleontologie, 1 Rte de Malagnou, cp 6434, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland


  • Alkaya, F. 1979. Lower Jurassic Ammonites from Northern Turkey. 320 pp. Unpublished Memoir, Ph.D. thesis, University of London, London.
  • Alkaya, F. and Meister, C. 1995. Liassic ammonites from the central and eastern Pontides (Ankara and Kelkit areas, Turkey). Revue de Paléobiologie 14: 125–193.
  • Arkell, W.J., Kummel, B., and Wright, C.W. 1957. Mesozoic Ammonoidea. In: R.C. Moore (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part L, Mollusca 4; Cephalopoda, Ammonoidea, 80–465. Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press, Boulder.
  • Bettoni, A. 1900. Fossili Domeriani della Provincia di Brescia. Mémoires de la Société paléontologique suisse 28: 1–88.
  • Blau, J. and Meister, C. 2011. Resolving the Monte di Cetona biostratigraphical enigma—a revision of R. Fischer’s Sinemurian and Pliensbachian (Liassic) ammonite collection from the Central Appenines (Tuscany, Italy). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 261: 257–287.
  • Bloos, G. 1988. Ammonites marmoreus Oppel (Schlotheimiidae) im unteren Lias (angulata−Zone, depressa−Subzone) von Württemberg (Südwest-deutschland). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde B 141: 1–47.
  • Braga, J.−C. 1983. Ammonites del Domerense de la zona subbetica (Cordilleras beticas, Sur de España). 410 pp. Tesis doctoral, Universidad de Granada. España.
  • Bremer, H. 1965. Zur Ammonitenfauna und Stratigraphie des unteren Lias (Sinemurium bis Carixium) in der Umgebung von Ankara (Turkei). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 122: 127–221.
  • Büchner, M., Hoffmann, K., and Jordan, R. 1986. Die Tongruben der Ziegeleien im Unter−Pliensbachium (Lias gamma) der weiteren Umgebung von Bielefeld, ihre Geologie und Betriebsgeschichte: Ein Beitrag für künftige Rohstoff−Erschliessungen. Veröffentlichungen aus dem Naturkunde−Museum Bielefeld 1: 1–57.
  • Buckman, S.S. 1909–1930. Yorkshire Type Ammonites. 2 volumes, 185 pp. Wesley and Son, London; followed by Type Ammonites. 5 volumes, 358 pp. Wheldon and Wesley, London.
  • Canavari, M. 1888. Contribuzione alla fauna del Lias inferiore di Spezia. Memorie del Regio Comitato Geologico Italiano 3: 57–227.
  • Cantaluppi, G. and Brambilla, G. 1968. Le ammoniti del Ripiantino (Saltrio) e della Breggia (Canton Ticino). Reflessi biostratigrafici sul Domeriano ed il suo limite inferiore. Atti della Società di Scienze naturali e del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Milano 107: 277–315.
  • Cecca, F. 2002. Paleobiogeography of Marine Fossil Invertebrates—Concepts and Methods. 273 pp. Taylor and Francis, London.
  • Cope, J. 1991. Ammonite faunas of the Ammonitico Rosso of the Pontide Mountains, northern Anatolia. Geologica Romana 27: 303–325.
  • Davis, R.A., Landman, N.H., Dommergues, J.−L., Marchand, D., and Bucher, H. 1996. Mature modifications and dimorphism in ammonoid cephalopods. In: N.H. Landman, K. Tanabe, and R.A. Davis (eds.), Ammonoid Paleobiology. Topics in Geobiology 13: 463–539.
  • Dean, W.T., Donovan, D.T., and Howarth, M.K. 1961. The Liassic ammonite zones and subzones of the northwest European province. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology Series 4: 438–505.
  • Del Campana, D. 1900. I Cefalopodi del Medolo di Valtrompia. Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana 19: 555–644.
  • Dommergues, J.−L. 1978. Un cas de dimorphisme sexuel chez une ammonite carixienne Phricodoceras taylori (J. de C. Sowerby, 1826). Eoderoceratidae Spath, 1929. Bulletin scientifique de Bourgogne 31: 41–45.
  • Dommergues, J.−L. 1987. L’évolution chez les Ammonitina du Lias moyen (Carixien, Domérien basal) en Europe occidentale. Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie Lyon 98: 1–297.
  • Dommergues, J.−L. 1993. Les ammonites du Sinémurien supérieur de Bourgogne (France): Biostratigraphie et remarques paléontologiques. Revue de Paléobiologie 12: 67–173.
  • Dommergues, J.−L. 2003. Nouvelles données sur les ammonites du Carixien basal (Jurassique inférieur) en Europe du Nord−Ouest: les faunes de Corbigny (Nièvre, Bourgogne, France). Bulletin scientifique de Bourgogne 51: 12–36.
  • Dommergues, J.−L. and Meister, C. 1990. Les faunes d’ammonites de l’Austroalpin Moyen dans les Alpes Rhétiques italiennes (région de Livigno); biostratigraphie et implications paléogéographiques. Revue de Paléobiologie 9: 291–307.
  • Dommergues, J.−L. and Meister, C. 1999. Cladistic formalisation of relationships within a superfamily of lower Jurassic Ammonitina: Eoderocerataceae Spath, 1929. Revue de Paléobiologie 18: 273–286.
  • Dommergues, J.−L. and Mouterde, R. 1994. Phricodoceras taylori (J. de C. Sowerby, 1826). In: J.−C. Fischer (ed.), Révision critique de la Paléontologie française d’Alcide d’Orbigny, Volume 1, Céphalopodes Jurassiques, 90–91. Masson and Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Dommergues, J.−L., David, B., and Marchand, D. 1986. Les relations ontogenèse−phylogenèse: applications paléontologiques. Geobios 19: 335–356.
  • Dommergues, J.−L., Dugué, O., Gauthier, H., Meister, C., Neige, P., Raynaud, D., Savary, X., and Trevisan, M. 2008. Les ammonites du Pliensbachien et du Toarcien basal dans la carrière de la Roche Blain (Fresnay−le−Puceux, Calvados, Basse−Normandie, France). Taxonomie, implications stratigraphiques et paléontologiques. Revue de Paléobiologie 27: 265–329.
  • Dommergues, J.−L., Fara, E., and Meister, C. 2009. Ammonite diversity and its palaeobiogeographical structure during the early Pliensbachian (Jurassic) in the western Tethys and adjacent areas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 280: 64–77.
  • Dommergues, J.−L., Meister, C., and Mettraux, M. 1990. Succession des faunes d’ammonites du Sinémurien et du Pliensbachien dans les Préalpes médianes de Suisse romande (Vaud et Fribourg). Geobios 23: 307–341.
  • Dommergues, J.−L., Meister, C., Bonneau, M., Cadet, J.−P., and Fili, I. 2000. Les ammonites du Sinémurien supérieur et du Carixien inférieur à moyen du gisement de Lefterochori (Albanie méridionale). Témoin exceptionnel des faunes de la Téthys méditerranéenne orientale. Geobios 33: 329–358.
  • Donovan, D.T. 1954. Synoptic supplement to T. Wright’s “Monograph on the Lias Ammonites of the British Islands” (1878–1886). Palaeontographical Society, London 107: 1–54.
  • Donovan, D.T. 1994. History of classification of Mesozoic ammonites. Journal of the Geological Society, London 151: 1035–1040.
  • Donovan, D.T. and Surlyk, F. 2003. Lower Jurassic (Pliensbachian) ammonites from Bornholm, Baltic Sea, Denmark. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 1: 555–583.
  • Donovan, D.T., Callomon, J.H., and Howarth, M.K. 1981. Classification of the Jurassic Ammonitina. In: M.R. House and J.R. Senior (eds.), The Ammonoidea. The Evolution, Classification, Mode of Life and Geological Usefulness of a Major Fossil Group, 101–155. Academic Press, London.
  • Dubar, G. and Mouterde, R. 1978. Les formations à ammonites du Lias moyen dans le Haut Atlas de Midelt et du Tadla. Notes et Mémoires du Service géologique du Maroc 274: 1–112.
  • Edmunds, M. 2009. A revision of the Lower Jurassic ammonite genus Eoderoceras Spath and its immediate descendants and other relatives. Monograph of the Palaeontological Society Publication 633: 1–89.
  • Edmunds, M., Varah, M., and Bentley, A. 2003. The ammonites biostratigraphy of the lower Lias “Armatum Bed” (Upper Sinemurian–Lower Pliensbachian) at St Peter’s Field, Radstock, Somerset. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 114: 65–96.
  • El Hariri, K., Dommergues, J.−L., Meister, C., Souhel, A., and Chafiki, D. 1996. Les ammonites du Lias inférieur et moyen du Haut−Atlas de Béni−Méllal (Maroc): taxinomie et biostratigraphie à haute résolution. Geobios 29: 537–576.
  • Fantini Sestini, N. 1962. Contributo allo studio delle ammoniti del Domeriano di M. Domaro (Brescia). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 68: 483–554.
  • Fantini Sestini, N. 1978. Il genere Phricodoceras (Polymorphitidae, Ammonoidea) nel Pliensbachiano italiano. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 84: 327–348.
  • Fantini Sestini, N. and Paganoni, C. 1953. Studi paleontologici sul Lias del Monte Albenza (Bergamo); Ammoniti del Lotharingiano e del Domeriano. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 59: 65–90.
  • Faraoni, P., Marini, A., Pallini, G., and Venturi, F. 1996. New Carixian ammonite assemblages of Central Apennines (Italy), and their impact on Mediterranean Jurassic biostratigraphy. Paleopelagos 6: 75–122.
  • Ferretti, A. 1991. Introduzione ad uno studio morfometrico degli Ammoniti pliensbachiani della catena del Catria (Appennino Marchigiano). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 97: 49–98.
  • Frebold, H. 1970. Pliensbachian ammonoids from British Columbia and southern Yukon. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 7: 435–456.
  • Fucini, A. 1898. Di alcune nuove Ammoniti di calcari rossi inferiori della Toscana. Palaeontographia italica 4: 239–250.
  • Fucini, A. 1908. Ammoniti medoliane dell'Appennino. Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze naturali – Memorie 24: 79–95.
  • Géczy, B. 1959. Liparoceras (Hemiparinodiceras) urkuticum n. sg. n. sp. (Ceph.) from the Middle Liassic of the Bakony Mountains, Transdanubia, Hungary. Földtani Közlöny (Bulletin de la Société géologique de Hongrie) 89: 143–147.
  • Géczy, B. 1976. Les ammonites du Carixien de la montagne du Bakony, 220 pp. Akadémiai Kiado, Budapest.
  • Géczy, B. 1998. Lower Pliensbachian ammonites of Villany (Hungary). Hantkeniana 2: 5–47.
  • Géczy, B. and Meister, C. 1998. Les ammonites du Domérien de la montagne du Bakony (Hongrie). Revue de Paléobiologie 17: 69–161.
  • Géczy, B. and Meister, C. 2007. Les ammonites du Sinémurien et du Pliensbachien inférieur de la montagne du Bakony (Hongrie). Revue de Paléobiologie 26: 137–305.
  • Gérard, C. and Théry, A. 1938. Le Charmouthien de Meurthe−et−Moselle. Bulletin mensuel de la Société des Sciences de Nancy, nouvelle série 10–11: 167–191.
  • Guex, J. 1987. Sur la phylogenèse des ammonites du Lias inférieur. Bulletin de Géologie Lausanne 292: 455–469.
  • Guex ,J. 1995. Ammonites hettangiennes de la Gabbs Valley Range (Nevada, USA). Mémoires de Géologie Lausanne 27: 1–131.
  • Guex, J., Rakús, M., Morard, A., and Quartier−la−Tente, M. 2008. Ammonites sinémuriennes du Haut−Atlas marocain. Mémoires de Géologie Lausanne 47: 1–99.
  • Hauer, F.R. von 1861. Über die Ammoniten aus dem sogenannten Medolo der Berge Domaro und Guglielmo im val Trompia, Provinz Brescia. Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch−Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Weissenchaften 44: 403–422.
  • Hillebrandt, A. von 2006. Ammoniten aus dem Pliensbachium (Carixium und Domerium) von Südamerika. Revue de Paléobiologie 25: 1–403.
  • Hoffmann, K. 1982. Die stratigraphie, Paläogeographie und Ammonitenführung des Unter−Pliensbachium (Carixium, Lias gamma) in Nordwest−Deutschland. Geologisches Jahrbuch A 55: 3–439.
  • Hoffmann, R. 2010. New insights on the phylogeny of the Lytoceratoidea (Ammonitina) from the septal lobe and its functional interpretation. Revue de Paléobiologie 29: 1–156.
  • Höhne, R. 1933. Beiträge zur Stratigraphie, Tektonik und Paläogeographie des südbaltischen Rhät−Lias, insbesondere auf Bornholm. Abhandlungen des Geologisch−Paläontologischen Instituts der Universität Greifswald 12: 1–105.
  • Howarth, M.K. 2002. The Lower Lias of Robin Hood’s Bay, Yorkshire, and the work of Leslie Bairstow. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum 58: 81–152.
  • Hyatt, A. 1900. Cephalopoda. In: K.A. von Zittel (ed.), Textbook of Palaeontology, Vol. 1, Part 2, 502–592. Macmillan, London.
  • Krumbeck, L. 1922. Zur kenntnis des juras der insel Rotti. Jaarboek van het mijnwezen in nederlandsch oost−indië 3: 107–119.
  • Linares, A., Mouterde, R., and Rivas, P. 1979. Les Phricodoceras (Ammonitina) d’Andalousie. Cuadernos de Geologia 10: 259–265.
  • Macchioni, F. 2001. Ammonites of the Domerian–Early Toarcian in the Subbetic Zone and the Umbria−Marche Apennines. Taxonomy, Taphonomy, Biostratigraphy and Palaeobiogeography. 186 pp. Unpublished Memoir, Tesi di dottorato, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Italia.
  • Meister, C. 2007. Les Phricodoceratidae Spath, 1938 (Mollusca, Cephalopoda): ontogenèse, évolution et paléobiogéographie. Geodiversitas 29: 87–117.
  • Meister, C. and Sciau, J. 1988. Une faune inédite d’ammonites du Carixien inférieur des Causses (France). Revue de Paléobiologie 7: 261–269.
  • Meister, C., Blau, J., Dommergues, J.−L., Feist−Burkhardt, S., Hart, M., Hesselbo, S.P., Hylton, M., Page, K., and Price, G. 2003. A proposal for the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Pliensbachian Stage (Lower Jurassic). Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 96: 275–297.
  • Meister, C., Dommergues, J.−L., Dommergues, C., Lachkar, N., and El Hariri, K. 2011. Les ammonites du Pliensbachien du Jebel Bou Rharraf (Haut Atlas oriental, Maroc). Geobios 44: 117.e1–117.e60.
  • Meister, C., Schlögl, J., and Rakús, M. 2010. Sinemurian ammonites from Male Karpaty Mts., Western Carpathians, Slovakia. Part 1: Phylloceratoidea, Lytoceratoidea, Schlotheimiidae. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 259: 25–88.
  • Mouterde, R. and Dommergues, J.−L. 1994. Phricodoceras lamellosum (d’Orbigny, 1844). In: J.−C. Fischer (ed.), Révision critique de la Paléontologie française d’Alcide d’Orbigny, Volume 1, Céphalopodes Jurassiques, 73. Masson and Museum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mouterde, R., Dommergues, J.−L., and Rocha, R.B. 1983. Atlas des fossiles caractéristiques du Lias portugais, 2 – Carixien. Ciências da Terra 7: 187–254.
  • Ogg, J.G., Ogg, G., and Gradstein, F.M. 2008. The Concise Geologic Time Scale. 177 pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Olóriz, F. 2000. Time−averaging and long−term palaeoecology in macroinvertebrate assemblages with ammonites (Upper Jurassic). Revue de Paléobiologie, Volume Spécial 8: 123–140.
  • Olóriz, F. and Villaseñor, A.B. 2010. Ammonite biogeography: From descriptive to dynamic, ecological interpretations. In: K. Tanabe, Y. Shigeta, T. Sasaki, and H. Hirano (eds.), Cephalopods−Present and Past, 253–265. Tokai University Press, Tokyo.
  • Oppel, A. 1853. Der Mittlere Lias Schwabens. Württemberg Naturwissenschaft Jahreshefte 10: 1–92.
  • Oppel, A. 1856–58. Die Juraformation Englands, Frankreichs und des südwestlichen Deutschlands. Würtembergen naturwissenschaftlichen Jahresheft 12–14: 1–857.
  • Orbigny A. d’ 1844. Paléontologie française: Terrains jurassiques, I. Céphalopodes, Livres 17–27, 193–312. Masson, Paris.
  • Otkun, G. 1942. Etude paléontologique de quelques gisements du Lias d’Anatolie. Metae (Publications de l’Institut d’Etudes et de Recherches Minières de Turquie) Série B: Mémoires 8: 1–41.
  • Page, K. 1993. Mollusca: Cephalopoda (Ammonoidea: Phylloceratina, Lytoceratina, Ammonitina and Ancycloceratina). In: M.J. Benton (ed.), The Fossil Record 2, 213–227. Chapman and Hall, London.
  • Page, K. 2008. The evolution and geography of the Jurassic ammonoids. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 119: 35–57.
  • Quenstedt, F.A. 1845–1849. Petrefactenkunde Deutschlands. I. Cephalopoden. 580 pp. Fues, Tübingen.
  • Quenstedt, F.A. 1883–1885. Die Ammoniten des Schwäbischen Jura. Bd. I. Der Schwarze Jura (Lias). 440 pp. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart.
  • Rakús, M. 1999. Liassic ammonites from Hierlatz, Austria. Abhandlungen der geologischen Bundesanstalt 56: 343–377.
  • Rakús, M. and Guex, J. 2002. Les ammonites du Jurassique inférieur et moyen de la dorsale tunisienne. Mémoires de Géologie Lausanne 39: 1–217.
  • Reilley, S.M., Wiley, E.O., and Meinhardt, D.J. 1997. An integrative approach to heterochrony: the distinction between interspecific and intraspecific phenomena. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 60: 119–143.
  • Roman, F. 1938. Les ammonites jurassiques et crétacées. 554 pp. Masson, Paris.
  • Schindewolf, O.H. 1962. Studien zur Stammesgeschichte der Ammoniten: II, Psilocerataceae–Eoderocerataceae. Abhandlungen des Akademie des Wissenschaften und der Literatur in Mainz, mathematisch−naturwissenschatliche Klasse 8: 425–571.
  • Schlatter, R. 1977. The Biostratigraphy of the Lower Pliensbachian at the Type Locality (Pliensbach, Württemberg, SW−Germany). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde B 27: 1–29.
  • Schlatter, R. 1980. Biostratigraphie und Ammonitenfauna des Unter−Pliensbachium im Typusgebiet (Pliensbach, Holzmaden und Nürtingen; Würtemberg, SW−Deutschland). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde B 65: 1–261.
  • Schlatter, R. 1990. Phricodoceras sexinodosum n. sp. (Ammonoidea) aus dem Lotharingium (Raricostatum zone) von Balingen (Baden−Würtemberg, Südwest−Deutschland). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde B 159: 1–9.
  • Schlatter, R. 1991. Biostratigraphie und Ammonitenfauna des Ober−Lotharingium und Unter−Pliensbachium im Klettgau (Kanton Schaffausen, Schweiz) und angrenzender Gebiete. Mémoires suisses de Paléontologie 113: 1–133.
  • Schlegelmilch, R. 1976. Die Ammoniten des süddeutschen Lias. 212 pp. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart.
  • Schröder, J. 1927. Die ammoniten der jurassischen fleckenmergel in den bayrischen alpen. Palaeontographica 68: 111–232.
  • Sciau, J. 1991. Coup d’śil sur les fossiles des Causses, 1 – Du Primaire au Lias moyen. 78 pp. Association des amis du musée de Millau et Editions du Castelet, Boulogne.
  • Smith, P.L. and Tipper, H.W. 1996. Pliensbachian (Lower Jurassic) Ammonites of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Bulletins of American Paleontology 108 (348): 1–122.
  • Smith, P.L., Tipper, H.W., Taylor, D.G., and Guex, J. 1988. An ammonite zonation for the Lower Jurassic of Canada and the United States: the Pliensbachian. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 25: 1503–1523.
  • Sowerby, J. de C. 1823–1829. The Mineral Conchiology of Great Britain; or Coloured Figures and Descriptions of Those Remains of Testaceous Animals or Shells, which Have Been Preserved at Various Times and Depths in the Earth. 4 (fin)–7, pl. 384–648. London.
  • Spath, L.F. 1938. A Catalogue of the Ammonites of the Liassic Family Liparoceratidae in the British Museum (Natural History). 191 pp. British Museum (Natural History), London.
  • Tintant, H., Mouterde, R., and Enay, R. 1975. Esquisse de la phylognèse des ammonites du Jurassique. In: C. Pomerol (ed.), Stratigraphie et paléogéographie (ère Mésozoïque), 114–125. Doin, Paris.
  • Tipper, H.W., Smith, P.L., Cameron, B.E.B., Carter E.S., Jakobs, G.K., and Johns, M.J. 1991. Biostratigraphy of the Lower Jurassic formations of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 90–10: 203–235.
  • Venturi, F. 1982. Ammoniti liassici dell’Appennino centrale. 103 pp. Città de Castello, Italia.
  • Venturi, F. and Bilotta, M. 2008. New data and hypotheses on early Jurassic ammonite phylogeny. Revue de Paléobiologie 27: 859–901.
  • Venturi, F. and Ferri, R. 2001. Ammoniti Liassici dell’Appennino Centrale, III. 268 pp. Tibergraph, Città di Castello.
  • Venturi, F., Rea, G., Silvestrini, G., and Bilotta, M. 2010. Ammoniti. Un viaggio geologico nelle montagne appenniniche. 367 pp. Porzi editoriali s.a.s, Perugia.
  • Venzo, S. 1952. Nuove faune ad ammoniti del Domeriano–Aleniano dell’Alpe Turati e dintorni (Alta Brianza). Atti della Società di Scienze naturali di Milano 91: 95–123.
  • Vrielynck, B. and Bouysse, P. 2001. Le visage changeant de la Terre. L’éclatement de la Pangée et la mobilité des continents au cours des dernièrs 250 millions d’années en 10 cartes. 32 pp. Commission de la carte géologique du monde, Paris.
  • Wähner, F. 1882–1898. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der tieferen Zonen des unteren Lias in nordöstlichen Alpen. I–VIII. Beiträge zur Paläontologie und Geologie Österreich–Ungarns und des Orients 2–11: 1–291.
  • Westermann, G.E.G. and Tsujita, C.J. 1999. Life habits of ammonoids. In: E. Savazzi (ed.), Functional Morphology of the Invertebrate Skeleton, 299–325. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
  • Wiedenmayer, F. 1980. Die Ammoniten der mediterranen Provinz im Pliensbachian und unteren Toarcian aufgrund neuer Untersuchungen im Generoso–Becken (Lombardische Alpen). Mémoires de la Société hélvétique de Sciences naturelles 93: 1–195.
  • Wiedmann, J. 1970. Über den Ursprung der Neoammonoideen. Das Problem einer Typogenese. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 63: 923–1020.
  • Wright, T. 1878–1886. Monograph on the Lias Ammonites of the British Islands. 503 pp. Palaeontographical Society, London.
  • Yin, J.−R., Liu, G.−F., and Xie, Y.−W. 2007. Late Triassic and Early Jurassic Ammonoids from Eastern Himalayas. Geoscience 21: 31–41.
  • Zieten, C.H. 1830–1834. Die Versteinerungen Württembergs. 102 pp. Expedition des Werkes unsere Zeitschrift. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart.

Typ dokumentu



Identyfikator YADDA

JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.