The chemical fraction of elements has been widely employed in the study of soil chemistry, plant nutrition, and environmental science. For this study we conducted a comprehensive survey on trace elements (Hg, As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Mo, Co, etc.) from the rock tea gardens in Wuyishan, southeastern China. Our results demonstrate that: 1) The contents of heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, As, and Cd in the soil meet the environmental requirements for the growing area of tea (NY/T 853-2004), and the soil in the studied area contains sufficient Mn, Mo, and Se for tea plant growth, with a slight lack of Co. 2) The exchangeable fraction is determined to be the dominant fraction of Cd, which originates from an anthropogenic source and possesses high bioavailability from elemental speciation analysis. 3) The heavy metal contents in all the tea leaf samples are within the safe range, and the average values of the element enrichment coefficients of the tea leaves decrease in the order: Mn > Cu > Hg > Zn > Se > Cd > Mo > Co > As > Pb > Cr.