Effects of processing methods on the content of minerals in fish products
Treść / Zawartość
Effects of salting, pickling and smoking processing methods on the mineral composition in fish products were investigated. The concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn and Se in fish products were determined during subsequent stages of processing in raw fish, semi-processed products and ready products. Fresh fish contained macro-elements in the following order: K > P > Na > Ca > Mg. The tendency was similar in semi-processed and ready products, except for the dominance of sodium. The sodium content in marinated products was three-fold higher than in fresh fish and twelve-fold higher in salted herring and cold-smoked fish. The sodium content in a 100 g portion of salted herring exceeded by six-fold the recommended daily allowance and by two-fold the tolerated amount. The content of K, Mg and P in marinated and salted herring tended to decrease throughout processing. No significant differences were observed in concentrations of Ca. The order of the concentrations of microelements was as follows: Zn > Fe > Cu > Se > Mn. The content of these elements in fish products was similar to their levels in fresh fish and corresponded to the following shares of the recommended allowances: Se up to 20%; Cu up to 11%; Zn up to 6%; Mn up to 1%; Fe up to 10%. Disadvantageous changes in the mineral composition in fish during processing result from water losses during technological processes, but the primary cause of mineral loss was leaching when the products were soaked in brine solutions with a high sodium content. Significant changes in the content of minerals in salted and pickled herring decreased the nutritional value of these products. Smaller mineral losses that occurred during smoking meant that these products were more valuable nutritionally in relation to minerals.
- Aubourg S. P., Ugliano M. 2002. Effect of brine pre-treatment on lipid stability of frozen horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Eur. Food Res. Technol., 215: 91-95.
- Brucka-Jastrzębska E, Kawczuga D, Rajkowska M, Protasowicki M. 2009. Levels of microelements (Cu, Zn, Fe) and macroelements (Mg, Ca) in freshwater fish. J Elem., 14(3): 437-447.
- Cardinal M., Knockaert C., Torrissen O., Sigurgisladottir S., Morkore Т., Thomassen M., Vallet J.L. 2001. Relation of smoking parameters to the yield colour and sensory quality of smoked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Food Res. Int., 34: 537-550.
- Commission Directive 2008/100/EC of 28 October 2008.
- Erkan N., Özden Ö., ülusoy S. 2009. Levels of trace elements in commercially important fish, crustaceans and mollusks from Istanbul fish market. Fresen. Environ. Bull., 18(7B): 1307-1311.
- Ersoy B., Özden A. 2009. The effect of cooking methods on mineral and vitamin contents of African catfish. Food Chem., 115: 419-422.
- Ersoy B., Celik M. 2010. The essential and toxic elements in tissues of six commercial demersal fish from Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Food Chem. Toxicol., 48: 1377-1382.
- Espe M., Nortvedt R., Lie O., Hafsteinsson H. 2002. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) as raw material for the smoking industry. II. Effect of different smoking methods on losses of nutrients and on the oxidation of lipids. Food Chem., 77: 41-46.
- Gokoglu N., Yerlikay P., cengiz E. 2004. Effects of cooking methods on the proximate composition and mineral contents of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food Chem., 84: 19-22.
- Goulas A.E., Kontominas M.G. 2005. Effect of salting and smoking-method on the keeping quality of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus): biochemical and sensory attributes. Food Chem., 93: 511-520.
- Guérin Т., Chekri R., Vastel Ch., Sirot V., Volatier J-L., Leblanc J-Ch., Noel L. 2011. Determination of 20 trace elements in fish and other seafood from the French market. Food Chem., 127: 934-942.
- Kalogeropoulos N., Karavoltsos S., Sakellari A., Avramidou S., Dassenakis M., Scoullos M. 2012. Heavy metals in raw, fried and grilled Mediterranean finfish and shellfish. Food Chem. Toxicol., 50: 3702-3708.
- Kołodziejska I., Niecikowska C., Januszewska E., Sikorski Z. E. 2002. The microbial and sensory quality of mackerel hot smoked in mild conditions. Lebensm-Wiss. Technol., 35: 87-92.
- Leroi F., Joffraud J. J., Chevalier F. 2000. Effect of salt microbiological quality of cold-smoked salmon during storage at 5°C as estimated by the factorial design method. J. Food Protect., 63(4): 502-508.
- Malesa-Ciecwierz M., Usydus Z. 2015. Vitamin D: Can fish food-based solutions be used for reduction of vitamin D deficiency in Poland? Nutrition, 31: 187-192.
- Norms of Nutrition for Polish Population — ammended. 2012. Jarosz M. (Red). National Food and Nutrition Institute, Warsaw, Poland. (in Polish)
- Oguzhan P., Angin S. 2013. Effects of processing methods on the sensory, mineral matter and proximate composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) fillets. Afr. J Food Sci. Technol., 4(4): 71-75.
- Polak-Juszczak L. 2015. Selenium and mercury molar ratios in commercial fish from the Baltic Sea: Additional risk assessment criterion for mercury exposure. Food Control, 50: 881-888.
- Polak-Juszczak L., Robak S. 2015. Macro- and microelements in eel (Anguilla anguilla) from the northern regions of Poland. J. Elem., 20(2): 385-394. DOI: 10.5601/jelem.2014.19.2.652
- Stanek M., Andrzejewski W., Janicki B., Mazurkiewicz J., Waszak I. 2014. Content of calcium and phosphorus in the meat, gills and liver of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) from the Wielkopolska Lakes District (Poland). J. Elem., 19(2): 507-518.
- Steiner M., Julsham K., Lie O. 1991. Effects of local processing methods (cooking, frying and smoking) on three fish species from Ghana. Part I. Proximate composition, fatty acids, minerals, trace elements and vitamins. Food Chem., 40: 309-321.
- Stolyhwo A., Sikorski Z.E. 2005. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked fish-a critical review. Food Chem., 91: 303-311.
- Szlinder-Richert J., Usydus Z., Malesa-Ciecwierz M., Polak-Juszczak L., Ruczyńska W. 2011. Marine and farmer fish on the Polish market: Comparison of the nutritive value and human exposure to PCDD/Fs and other contaminants. Chemosphere, 85(11): 1725-173
- Tahvonen R., NuHMi J., Kallio H. 2000. Mineral content in Baltic herring and Baltic herring products. J. Food Comp. Anal., 13: 893-903.
- Tetsuro A., Takashi K., Genta Y., Hisato i., Annamalai S., Ahmad i., Shinsuke T. 2005. Concentrations of trace elements in marine fish and its risk assessment in Malaysia. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 51: 896-911.
- Tetsuro A., Takashi K., Agus S., Supawat K.-A., Hisato I., Ahmad i., Joompol S., Muswerry M., Touch S.T., Shinsuke T. 2007. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia. Environ. Pollut., 145, 766-777.
- Türkmen M., Türkmen A., Tepe Y., Töre Y., Ates A. 2009. Determination of metals in fish species from Aegean and Mediterranean seas. Food Chem., 113: 233-237.
- Usydus Z., Szlinder-Richert J., Adamczyk M. 2009. Protein quality and amino acid profiles of fish products available in Poland. Food Chem., 112: 139-145.
- Usydus Z., Szlinder-Richert J., Adamczyk M., szatkowska U. 2011. Marine and farmed fish in the Polish market: Comparison of the nutritional value. Food Chem., 126: 78-84.